COVID-19 tests are used for diagnosis of two basic aspects of the infection: detecting active SARS-CoV-2 infection or testing for past SARS-CoV-2 infection. Active infection indicates that the tested patient could infect others due to the presence of active replicating virus. previous infection refers to an individual who has already recovered from the virus and has no replicating virus in the sample.
Active infections are diagnosed by antigen or molecular tests. The molecular tests are also referred to as nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT). This category of diagnostic test includes polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-based assays. The real time quantification RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is the routine confirmation test recommended by WHO. It is considered as the gold standard for SARS-CoV-2 identification. These tests detect current infection and directs healthcare providers on further treatment or isolation procedures to reduce spread.
Antigen tests are rapid and detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antigens in samples, typically providing results in under 30 min. This typically avoids extraction and amplification steps. The Spike (S) and Nucleocapsid (N) are the two main antigenic targets of SARS-CoV-2.
Serology tests are used to detect past infection and look for the presence of antibodies produced by the body as a specific response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Detection of antibodies specific to SARS-CoV-2 indicates that the subject is currently seropositive. With specific reagents, individual antibody types, like IgG, IgM, and IgA, can be determined. Antibody detection in vivo acts as a supplement to molecular methods. However, these tests require seroconversion of an individual and cannot be applied during early stages of infection.
A combination of molecular and serological tests is needed to improve the diagnostic accuracy of COVID-19. Laboratory-based tests both for molecular and serology tests are not suitable for point-of-care diagnosis due to time-consuming, expensive equipment and biosafety requirements. Point-of-care tests are rapid, accurate, sometimes portable, and have low cost and non-specific device requirements.
As per the U. S. FDA, there are following types of COVID-19 related In vitro diagnostic (IVD) devices: –
- Diagnostic Tests – Tests that detect parts of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and can be used to diagnose infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. These include molecular tests and antigen tests.
- Serology/Antibody Tests – Tests that detect antibodies (e.g., IgM, IgG) to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Serology/antibody tests cannot be used to diagnose a current infection.
- Tests for Management of COVID-19 Patients – Beyond tests that diagnose or detect SARS-CoV-2 virus or antibodies, there are also tests that are authorized for use in the management of patients with COVID-19, such as to detect biomarkers related to inflammation. Once patients are diagnosed with COVID-19 disease, these additional tests can be used to inform patient management decisions.
As of June 14, 2021, 384 tests and sample collection devices are authorized by the FDA under emergency use authorizations (EUAs). These include 275 molecular tests and sample collection devices, 81 antibody and other immune response tests, and 28 antigen tests. There are 52 molecular authorizations and one antibody authorization that can be used with home-collected samples. There is one molecular prescription at-home test, three antigen prescription at-home tests, five antigen over-the-counter (OTC) at-home tests, and two molecular OTC at-home tests. The FDA has authorized 11 antigen tests and 4 molecular tests for serial screening programs.
SELECT COVID-19 DIAGNOSTIC KITS/ASSAYS ARE HIGHLIGHTED BELOW.
Updated: 14 June, 2021.
Following is the list of all SARS-CoV-2 tests commercially available or in development for the diagnosis of COVID-19 collated by the Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND), which is information directly submitted by test suppliers or obtained from publicly available sources.
|Immunoassay||Ring Biotechnology Co., Ltd||COVID-19 IgM/IgG Rapid Test Kit||CE-IVD|
|Immunoassay||Abbott Diagnostics||Panbio™ COVID-19 Ag Rapid Test Device||Australia TGA - South Africa SAHPRA - WHO EUL|
|Molecular assay||Optolane Technologies Inc.||Kaira 2019-nCoV Detection kit||US FDA EUA - Philippines FDA - CE-IVD|
|Immunoassay||Fortress Diagnostics Ltd||Coronavirus Antigen Rapid Test||CE-IVD|
|Molecular assay||iNtRON Biotechnology Inc.||LiliF™ COVID-19 Real-time RT-PCR Kit||In development|
|Immunoassay||Green Cross Medical Science Corp.||GENEDIA W COVID-19 Ag||CE-IVD|
|Molecular assay||Nanjing Vazyme Medical Technology Co., Ltd||2019-Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Triplex RT-qPCR Detection Kit||China NMPA EUA - CE-IVD|
|Immunoassay||Genobio Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.||COVID-19 IgG Lateral Flow Assay||CE-IVD|
|Immunoassay||Mikrogen GmbH||recomLine SARS-CoV-2 IgG||CE-IVD|
|Immunoassay||Shenzhen Yhlo Biotech Co. Ltd||GLINE-2019-nCoV IgM/IgG||CE-IVD|
An Overview of Coronavirus (COVID-19) Vaccine Candidates
Over the past 18 years, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and now COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) have caused unimaginable distress, mortality, morbidity, social disturbances, and economic disruptions . To mitigate the consequences of COVID-19 and to protect from future pandemics, vaccines are urgently needed. Since the pandemic started, scientists worldwide have been evaluating different approaches at unprecedented speed with novel paradigms and accelerated development to trigger the immune system to produce effective neutralizing antibodies and enough T-cells that can fight COVID-19, in hopes of inducing the kind of responses that maybe associated with protection and minimal adverse events. The World Health Organization (WHO) maintains a working document that includes most of the vaccines in development.
As of May 13, 2021, there were 100 candidate vaccines in clinical testing and 184 candidate vaccines in preclinical evaluation as per the continually updated published draft vaccine landscape by WHO  (Figure1).
Figure 1: Vaccine development data from WHO .
Figure 2 shows at least eight different approaches that have been explored for the development of a vaccine. Most of the platforms aim to induce neutralizing antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein (S). These antibodies are expected to prevent uptake through the human ACE-2 receptor, thereby limiting viral entrance. The platforms include Whole virus vaccines (Weakened or Inactivated form), Viral-vector vaccines (Replicating or Non-replicating), Genetic forms (RNA, DNA), Protein-based vaccines (Subunit or Virus-like Particles).
Figure 2. An overview of different approaches to vaccine development. Image for illustration purpose only.
The first candidates to enter Phase 3 clinical trials were developed using the nucleic acid platforms, non-replicating viral vectored platforms, inactivated virus, or recombinant subunit vaccines. These are known to be faster development platforms (Ebola, HepB). The traditional strategies that use platforms like attenuated virus need more time but are historically more successful (Oral Polio, Yellow fever, Chickenpox, Mumps) .
As per the WHO data , the candidates in clinical phase as well as the in preclinical stages are visualized based on the platform technology used for their development as seen in Figure 3.
Figure 3: Visualization of candidates in various phases based on the platform technology used for their development.
Vaccine Development Timelines
Steps and timelines for traditional and pandemic vaccine development are shown in Figure 4. The traditional vaccine testing process begins with the Preclinical trials (in labs, and then in animals if it shows potential) followed by the Phase 1 safety trials (20-100 healthy volunteers), the expanded Phase 2 trials (several hundred enrolled for observing common short-term side effects and dosing responses), and then Phase 3 efficacy trials (hundreds or thousands of volunteers). Vaccinated people are compared with people who have received a placebo or another vaccine so researchers can learn more about the test vaccine’s safety and effectiveness and identify common side effects. Once a vaccine is successfully passed these requirements, the approval process is followed [4, 5]. A decade or longer is more typical for the completion of a successful candidate.
However, in a pandemic situation, a vaccine may receive Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) before getting any kind of formal approval, Phases II and III may be combined to shorten the time for development, and the Human challenge trials (controlled human infection model) can be skipped. The current speed with which vaccines are being developed is remarkable, from the first deciphering of the SARS-CoV-2 genome published on 11 January 2020 through Phase III trials in 6 months, as compared with a typical timeline of 2 to 10 years. It should be noted that several companies had already pursued large scale manufacturing of vaccines before establishing the vaccine safety, efficacy and/or receiving the final regulatory approval.
Figure 4. Timelines for traditional and pandemic models of vaccine development
On February 17, the United Kingdom approved the world’s first COVID-19 human challenge trial. Researchers will expose up to 90 young, healthy people to the virus in order to study how it affects the human body; as of March 25, the first three volunteers have been exposed .
As of May 13, 2021, as per the WHO dashboard , there were among the 100 clinical stage trials, 23 candidates had already moved into the final stages (4 trials in Phase 4 and 19 trials in Phase 3). In an unprecedented move, the vaccine candidate from CanSino Biologics was approved for limited use on June 25, 2020. Later, on August 11, the vaccine candidate Sputnik V from Gamaleya Research Institute, part of Russia’s Ministry of Health, was conditionally approved before Phase 3 trials. Another candidate from Russia, EpiVacCorona from the Vector Institute was granted regulatory approval. On September 14, the U.A.E. government, following intermediate results from ongoing trials, provided emergency approval for Sinopharm’s vaccine to be used on health care workers as a priority.
Moderna Inc., and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) collaborated to produce a candidate that entered clinical trials in just 63 days after the genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2. On December 2, 2020, the United Kingdom gave emergency authorization to Pfizer and BioNTech’s vaccine, becoming the first Western country to give such an approval to a coronavirus vaccine.
Several vaccine candidates are now in the final stages of their development, including receiving of approvals as well as Emergency Use Authorization (EUA). Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna vaccines are already under EUA in the U. S. and people are being vaccinated. The adenovirus vector vaccine from Oxford/AstraZeneca has been now approved by the UK authorities as well as in India and Argentina. Indian authorities also approved the inactivated vaccine Covaxin from Bharat Biotech following a double-bind, randomized, multi-center phase 2 clinical trial and an ongoing phase 3 trial. The Sinopharm candidate has been approved in China, U.A.E., and Bahrain while the Sinovac candidate has been approved for limited use in China, both currently in Phase 3 .
The WHO on May 7, 2021, listed the Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine for emergency use, giving the green light for this vaccine to be rolled out globally. WHO has also listed the Pfizer/BioNTech, Astrazeneca, Janssen and Moderna vaccines for emergency use . On May 10, 2021 the US FDA. expanded the authorization for Pfizer to children as young as 12 .
As an example, for development and pace of the process that ensued, a second candidate mRNA platform was the BNT162b2 developed by Pfizer and BioNTech. Four modified mRNA-based (modRNA) vaccine candidates were designed to be administered 3-weeks apart to instruct the immune cells to make several copies of the full-length SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) protein. After positive preclinical trials for intramuscularly administered doses of one of the candidates, BNT162b2 , the Phase 1 trial soon after supported the selection of BNT162b2 for advancement to a pivotal phase 2-3 safety and efficacy evaluation. The BNT162b2 vaccine candidate fully protected the lungs of immunized rhesus macaques from infectious SARS-CoV-2 challenge. In both younger and older adults, the two vaccine candidates elicited similar dose-dependent SARS-CoV-2–neutralizing geometric mean titers, which were similar to or higher than the geometric mean titer of a panel of SARS-CoV-2 convalescent serum samples (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04368728) . The Phase 3 portion of the clinical trial was designed to determine if the BNT162b2 vaccine candidate is safe and effective in preventing COVID-19 disease. This part of the trial began July 27 2020 and a total of 43,548 participants underwent randomization. A two-dose regimen of BNT162b2 conferred 95% protection against Covid-19 in persons 16 years of age or older . On 6 October, BioNTech and Pfizer initiated a rolling submission to European Medicines Agency for the candidate BNT162b2 and plan to work with the EMA’s Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) to complete the rolling review process to facilitate the final Marketing Authorization Application (MAA) . On December 08, 2020 the FDA released their independent analysis of the clinical trials. They determined that the Comirnaty (BNT162b2) had an efficacy rate of 95%. Soon after, on December 10, 2020 Pfizer announced that the US FDA voted 17 to 4 in support of the FDA granting Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for the companies’ mRNA vaccine .
Table 1 summarizes the most advanced candidates that have successful approvals in several countries and are being used to vaccinate the population in huge numbers.
Table 1. Snapshot of the advanced vaccine candidates (as on May 13, 2021) [ref. 15-34].
*Pricing ($ / $$ / $$$) are comparisons based on some US market reports and may not truly reflect all regions and distributors. The efficacy measures have been derived based on different standards used in respective clinical trials and may not always be comparable.
|Vaccine Candidate||Technology||Developer||Pricing||Country||Efficacy||Efficacy (Disease)||Efficacy (Variants)||Dosing||Storage||Administration||Brief Description||WHO approved||Clinical Trials|
|NVX-CoV2373||Protein subunit vaccine||Novavax, Inc.||$||United States||96%||100% (Severe) & 89% (Symptomatic)||85% (B.1.1.7); 55% (B.1.351)||2 doses (21 days apart)||2 - 8 deg C for 6 months, -20 deg C for 2 years||IM||NVX-CoV2373 is a protein-based vaccine candidate created using Novavax' recombinant nanoparticle technology to generate antigen derived from the coronavirus spike (S) protein and is adjuvanted with Novavax' patented saponin-based Matrix-M.||-||Phase 3|
|BNT162b2 (Comirnaty/ Tozinameran)||Encapsulated mRNA vaccine||Pfizer, Inc. & BioNTech SE||$$||United States; Germany||95%||100% (Severe) & 95% (Symptomatic)||75% (B.1.351)||0.3 ml, 2 doses (21 days apart)||2 - 8 deg C for 5 days, -20 deg C for 2 weeks, -70 deg C for 6 months||IM||BNT162b2 is an mRNA vaccine that codes for the spike protein of the virus and is encapsulated in a lipid nanoparticle.||Yes||Phase 4|
|mRNA-1273||Encapsulated mRNA vaccine||Moderna, Inc.||$$$||United States||94%||94.1% (Severe), 100% (Symptomatic)||Strain-matched booster against B.1.351 (mRNA-1273.351)||0.5 ml, 2 doses (28 days apart)||2 - 8 deg C for 30 days, -20 deg C for 6 months||IM||The 'Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine' is an mRNA vaccine against COVID-19 encoding for a prefusion stabilized form of the Spike (S) protein. The administered mRNA uses the host cell transcription and translation machinery to produce the viral antigen.||Yes||Phase 4|
|JNJ-78436735 (Ad26.COV2.S)||Viral vector (Non-replicating) vaccine||Johnson & Johnson (Janssen)||$||United States||72%||100% (hospitalization), 74% (Symptomatic to severe)||64% (B.1.351)||1 dose||2 - 8 deg C for 3 months, -20 deg C for 2 years||IM||The 'JNJ-78436735' candidate is a replicating-defective adenovirus 26 based vector expressing the stabilized pre-fusion S protein of SARS-CoV-2, uses double-stranded DNA.||Yes||Phase 3|
|BBIBP-CorV||Inactivated virus vaccine||Sinopharm||$$$||China||79%||78% (hospitalization), 78% (Overall)||2 doses (21 days apart)||2 - 8 deg C||IM||BBIBP-CorV was developed by beta-propiolactone-mediated inactivation of the 19nCoV-CDC-Tan-HB02 strain SARS-CoV-2 that was replicated in Vero cells and adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide. Aluminium hydroxide activates the NLRP3 receptor subunit of the inflammasome and promotes the secretion of high-levels of inflammasome-derived IL-1b and IL-18, thus activating proinflammatory mechanisms of the immune system.||Yes||Phase 3|
|AZD1222/ Vaxzevria/ COVISHIELD||Viral vector (Non-replicating) vaccine||AstraZeneca & University of Oxford||$||United Kingdom||82%||100% (Severe), 76% (Symptomatic), 85% (65+ & Symptomatic)||10% (B.1.351)||0.5 ml, 2 doses (21 days apart)||2 - 8 deg C for 6 months||IM||AZD1222 uses a replication-deficient chimpanzee viral vector based on a weakened version of a common cold virus (adenovirus) that causes infections in chimpanzees and contains the dsDNA of the SARS-CoV-2 virus spike protein. After vaccination, the surface spike protein is produced, priming the immune system to attack the SARS-CoV-2 virus if it later infects the body.||Yes||Phase 4|
|Sputnik V/ Gam-Covid-Vac||Viral vector vaccine||Gamaleya National Research Center of Epidemiology and Microbiology||$||Russia||92%||100% (Severe), 92% (Confirmed)||0.5 ml, 2 doses (21 days apart)||2 - 8 deg C for 6 months, -20 deg C for 2 years||IM||The world’s first registered vaccine based on a well-studied human adenoviral vector-based platform (recombinant human adenovirus serotype number 26 (rAd26)). Replication-defective Ad26 was selected to deliver the dsDNA for Spike protein during the first vaccination and recombinant replication-defective Ad5 for the second (booster).||-||Phase 3|
|Convidecia/ Ad5-nCoV||Viral vector (Non-replicating) vaccine||CanSino Bio||-||China||90.98%||90.98% (Severe), 65.7% (Symptomatic)||1 dose||2 - 8 deg C||IM||The candidate uses human adenovirus serotype 5 vector (Ad5) to deliver the information that codifies for SARS-CoV-2 full-length Spike protein into host cells.||-||Phase 3|
|CoronaVac||Inactivated virus vaccine||Sinovac Biotech||$$$||China||85%||100% (Severe), 83% (Symptomatic)||2 doses (14 days apart)||2 - 8 deg C||IM||CoronaVac is a purified, inactivated virus alum-adjuvanted candidate vaccine, produced by beta-propiolactone-activation of the CN2 strain of SARS-CoV-2 isolated from the BAL of a hospitalized patient||-||Phase 4|
|Covaxin/ BBV152||Inactivated virus vaccine||Bharat Biotech & Indian Council of Medical Research||$||India||81%||100% (Severe), 78% (Mild, Moderate and Severe), 70% (Asymptomatic)||Positive neutralization studies on B.1.617 & B.1.1.7||2 doses (28 days apart)||2 - 8 deg C||IM||The vaccine was developed by beta-propiolactone inactivation of an Indian strain of the novel coronavirus isolated by the Indian National Institute of Virology and propagated in Vero CCL-81 cells. BBV152 is a whole-virion inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine formulated with a toll-like receptor 7/8 agonist molecule adsorbed to alum (Algel-IMDG) or alum (Algel).||-||Phase 3|
Repurposed (Pre-existing) Vaccines
Given the imperative for scale and speed, epidemiological investigations have suggested a strong correlation among countries with universal vaccination policies and the severity of COVID-19. Findings suggested that countries with universal vaccination policies against Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG, Tuberculosis) and/or against MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella) showed a significant reduction of mortality and infection rates [35-37]. Authors suggest that such pre-existing vaccines may boost an individual’s immune response, reduce the severity of COVID-19, and alleviate the symptoms associated with COVID-19. Multiple such studies have revealed interesting associations with COVID-19 severity and vaccination coverage in the population [37, 38]. Despite the initiation of clinical trials (NCT04327206; NCT04357028), the WHO does not recommend such re-purposed vaccines until scientific evidence is provided . As cautioned by the WHO and while still in the middle of this pandemic, COVID-19 cases and deaths continue to increase over time in some BCG-using countries (e.g. Brazil, India, and Mexico) [39, 41].
Several laboratories and pharma companies worldwide are in the race to develop effective vaccines against COVID-19 using different platforms, even as leading candidates are being granted emergency approvals. The WHO said vaccination alone would not stop transmission entirely, and preventive health measures such as social distancing, mask-wearing and hand washing must continue . Most of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines under development require a prime-boost regimen. Massive vaccination campaigns would therefore require billions of doses to satisfy global demand, even as pharma companies are scaling up at risk production. Studies are ongoing to define the what the correlates of protection against COVID-19 infection are, including those on exact antibody titers, response duration and waning, responses in children, immunocompromised populations and pregnant women, better routes of administration as well as ability to confer sterilizing immunity. Finally, overcoming vaccine hesitancy is also of prime importance.
There are currently more than 280 vaccine candidates under development, with a number of these already receiving EUAs within less than a year since the first report of a SARS-CoV-2 infection. The durability of the immune response induced by these candidates as well as other aspects of the nature of immune responses that follow will emerge as bigger populations get vaccinated.
Regular updates and details on promising vaccine candidates are outlined in our “Highlights” tab (Dashboard).
Prepared by: Sudheer Krishna. Updated : 13 May 2021.
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Select promising vaccine candidates currently in clinical trials are detailed below.
Updated: 14 June, 2021.
Table: Summary of all vaccine candidates under evaluation – 100 clinical and 184 pre-clinical (as of May 13, 2021).
|ID||Developers||Vaccine platform description||Type of candidate vaccine||Number of doses||Schedule||Route of administration||Phase|
|1||Sinovac Research and Development Co., Ltd||Inactivated virus||CoronaVac; SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (inactivated)||2||Day 0 + 14||IM||Clinical [Phase 4]|
|2||Sinopharm + China National Biotec Group Co + Wuhan Institute of Biological Products||Inactivated virus||Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (Vero cell)||2||Day 0 + 21||IM||Clinical [Phase 3]|
|3||Sinopharm + China National Biotec Group Co + Beijing Institute of Biological Products||Inactivated virus||Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (Vero cell), vaccine name BBIBP-CorV||2||Day 0 + 21||IM||Clinical [Phase 3]|
|4||AstraZeneca + University of Oxford||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||ChAdOx1-S - (AZD1222) / Covishield / Vaxzevria||1 to 2||Day 0 + 28||IM||Clinical [Phase 4]|
|5||CanSino Biological Inc./Beijing Institute of Biotechnology||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||Recombinant novel coronavirus vaccine (Adenovirus type 5 vector)||1||Day 0||IM||Clinical [Phase 3]|
|6||Gamaleya Research Institute ; Health Ministry of the Russian Federation||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||Gam-COVID-Vac Adeno-based (rAd26-S+rAd5-S)||2||Day 0 + 21||IM||Clinical [Phase 3]|
|7||Janssen Pharmaceutical||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||Ad26.COV2.S||1 to 2||Day 0 or Day 0 +56||IM||Clinical [Phase 3]|
|8||Novavax||Protein subunit||SARS-CoV-2 rS/Matrix M1-Adjuvant (Full length recombinant SARS CoV-2 glycoprotein nanoparticle vaccine adjuvanted with Matrix M)||2||Day 0 + 21||IM||Clinical [Phase 3]|
|9||Moderna + National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)||RNA based vaccine||mRNA -1273||2||Day 0 + 28||IM||Clinical [Phase 4]|
|10||Pfizer/BioNTech + Fosun Pharma||RNA based vaccine||BNT162b2 (3 LNP-mRNAs ), also known as "Comirnaty"||2||Day 0 + 21||IM||Clinical [Phase 4]|
|11||Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical + Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences||Protein subunit||Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (CHO Cell)||2 to 3||Day 0 + 28 or Day 0 + 28 + 56||IM||Clinical [Phase 3]|
|12||CureVac AG||RNA based vaccine||CVnCoV Vaccine||2||Day 0 + 28||IM||Clinical [Phase 3]|
|13||Institute of Medical Biology + Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences||Inactivated virus||SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (vero cells)||2||Day 0 + 28||IM||Clinical [Phase 3]|
|14||Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems, Rep of Kazakhstan||Inactivated virus||QazCovid-in - COVID-19 inactivated vaccine||2||Day 0 + 21||IM||Clinical [Phase 3]|
|15||Inovio Pharmaceuticals + International Vaccine Institute + Advaccine (Suzhou) Biopharmaceutical Co., Ltd||DNA based vaccine||INO-4800+electroporation||2||Day 0 + 28||ID||Clinical [Phase 2/3]|
|16||AnGes + Takara Bio + Osaka University||DNA based vaccine||AG0301-COVID19||2||Day 0 + 14||IM||Clinical [Phase 2/3]|
|17||Zydus Cadila||DNA based vaccine||nCov vaccine||3||Day 0 + 28 + 56||ID||Clinical [Phase 3]|
|18||Genexine Consortium||DNA based vaccine||GX-19N||2||Day 0 + 28||IM||Clinical [Phase 1/2]|
|19||Bharat Biotech International Limited||Inactivated virus||Whole-Virion Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (BBV152)||2||Day 0 + 14||IM||Clinical [Phase 3]|
|20||Kentucky Bioprocessing Inc.||Protein subunit||KBP-COVID-19 (RBD-based)||2||Day 0 + 21||IM||Clinical [Phase 1/2]|
|21||Sanofi Pasteur + GSK||Protein subunit||VAT00002: SARS-CoV-2 S protein with adjuvant||2||Day 0 + 21||IM||Clinical [Phase 3]|
|22||Arcturus Therapeutics||RNA based vaccine||ARCT-021||-||-||IM||Clinical [Phase 2]|
|23||Serum Institute of India + Accelagen Pty + SpyBiotech||Virus like particle||RBD SARS-CoV-2 HBsAg VLP vaccine||2||Day 0 + 28||IM||Clinical [Phase 1/2]|
|24||Beijing Minhai Biotechnology Co||Inactivated virus||Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (Vero cell)||1, 2 or 3||-||IM||Clinical [Phase 3]|
|25||ReiThera + Leukocare + Univercells||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||GRAd-COV2 (Replication defective Simian Adenovirus (GRAd) encoding S)||1||Day 0||IM||Clinical [Phase 2/3]|
|26||Vaxart||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||VXA-CoV2-1 Ad5 adjuvanted Oral Vaccine platform||2||Day 0 + 28||Oral||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|27||University of Munich (Ludwig-Maximilians)||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||MVA-SARS-2-S||2||Day 0 + 28||IM||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|28||Clover Biopharmaceuticals Inc./GSK/Dynavax||Protein subunit||SCB-2019 + AS03 or CpG 1018 adjuvant plus Alum adjuvant (Native like Trimeric subunit Spike Protein vaccine)||2||Day 0 + 21||IM||Clinical [Phase 2/3]|
|29||Vaxine Pty Ltd.||Protein subunit||COVAX-19 Recombinant spike protein + adjuvant||1||Day 0 + 21||IM||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|30||Medigen Vaccine Biologics + Dynavax + National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)||Protein subunit||MVC-COV1901 (Spike-2P protein + adjuvant CpG 1018)||2||Day 0 + 28||IM||Clinical [Phase 2]|
|31||Instituto Finlay de Vacunas||Protein subunit||FINLAY-FR1 anti-SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (RBD + adjuvant)||2||Day 0 + 28||IM||Clinical [Phase 1/2]|
|32||Instituto Finlay de Vacunas||Protein subunit||FINLAY-FR-2 anti-SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (RBD chemically conjugated to tetanus toxoid plus adjuvant)||2||Day 0 + 28||IM||Clinical [Phase 3]|
|33||Federal Budgetary Research Institution State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology "Vector"||Protein subunit||EpiVacCorona (EpiVacCorona vaccine based on peptide antigens for the prevention of COVID-19)||2||Day 0 + 21||IM||Clinical [Phase 3]|
|34||West China Hospital + Sichuan University||Protein subunit||RBD (baculovirus production expressed in Sf9 cells) Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (Sf9 Cell)||2||Day 0 + 28||IM||Clinical [Phase 2]|
|35||University Hospital Tuebingen||Protein subunit||IMP CoVac-1 (SARS-CoV-2 HLA-DR peptides)||1||Day 0||SC||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|36||Vaxxinity||Protein subunit||UB-612 (Multitope peptide based S1-RBD-protein based vaccine)||2||Day 0 + 28||IM||Clinical [Phase 2/3]|
|37||University of Hong Kong, Xiamen University and Beijing Wantai Biological Pharmacy||Viral vector (Replicating)||DelNS1-2019-nCoV-RBD-OPT1 (Intranasal flu-based-RBD )||2||Day 0 + 28||IN||Clinical [Phase 2]|
|38||Imperial College London||RNA based vaccine||LNP-nCoVsaRNA||2||-||IM||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|39||Academy of Military Science (AMS), Walvax Biotechnology and Suzhou Abogen Biosciences||RNA based vaccine||SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine (ARCoV)||2||Day 0 + 14 or Day 0 + 28||IM||Clinical [Phase 3]|
|40||Medicago Inc.||Virus like particle||Coronavirus-Like Particle COVID-19 (CoVLP)||2||Day 0 + 21||IM||Clinical [Phase 2/3]|
|41||Shenzhen Geno-Immune Medical Institute||Viral vector (Replicating) + APC||Covid-19/aAPC vaccine. The Covid-19/aAPC vaccine is prepared by applying lentivirus modification with immune modulatory genes and the viral minigenes to the artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPCs).||3||Day 0 + 14 + 28||SC||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|42||Shenzhen Geno-Immune Medical Institute||Viral vector (Non-replicating) + APC||LV-SMENP-DC vaccine. Dendritic cells are modified with lentivirus vectors expressing Covid-19 minigene SMENP and immune modulatory genes. CTLs are activated by LV-DC presenting Covid-19 specific antigens.||1||Day 0||SC & IV||Clinical [Phase 1/2]|
|43||Adimmune Corporation||Protein subunit||AdimrSC-2f (recombinant RBD +/- Aluminium)||-||-||ND||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|44||Entos Pharmaceuticals Inc.||DNA based vaccine||Covigenix VAX-001 - DNA vaccines + proteo-lipid vehicle (PLV) formulation||2||Day 0 + 14||IM||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|45||Providence Health & Services||DNA based vaccine||CORVax - Spike (S) Protein Plasmid DNA Vaccine||2||Day 0 + 14||ID||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|46||Chulalongkorn University||RNA based vaccine||ChulaCov19 mRNA vaccine||2||Day 0 + 21||IM||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|47||Symvivo Corporation||DNA based vaccine||bacTRL-Spike oral DNA vaccine||1||Day 0||Oral||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|48||ImmunityBio, Inc||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||Human Adenovirus Type 5: hAd5 S+N bivalent vaccine (S-Fusion + N-ETSD). E2b- Deleted Adeno.||1 to 2||Day 0 + 21||SC or Oral or SL||Clinical [Phase 1/2]|
|49||City of Hope Medical Center + National Cancer Institute||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||COH04S1 (MVA-SARS-2-S) - Modified vaccinia ankara (sMVA) platform + synthetic SARS-CoV-2||1 to 2||Day 0 + 28||IM||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|50||Israel Institute for Biological Research||Viral vector (Replicating)||rVSV-SARS-CoV-2-S Vaccine||1||Day 0||IM||Clinical [Phase 1/2]|
|51||Aivita Biomedical, Inc. National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia||Viral vector (Replicating) + APC||Dendritic cell vaccine AV-COVID-19. A vaccine consisting of autologous dendritic cells loaded with antigens from SARS-CoV-2, with or without GM-CSF||1||Day 0||IM||Clinical [Phase 1/2]|
|52||Codagenix/Serum Institute of India||Live attenuated virus||COVI-VAC||1 to 2||Day 0 or Day 0 + 28||IN||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|53||Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (CIGB)||Protein subunit||CIGB-669 (RBD+AgnHB)||3||Day 0 + 14 + 28 or Day 0 +28 + 56||IN||Clinical [Phase 1/2]|
|54||Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (CIGB)||Protein subunit||CIGB-66 (RBD+aluminium hydroxide)||3||Day 0 + 14 + 28 or Day 0 +28 + 56||IM||Clinical [Phase 3]|
|55||Valneva, National Institute for Health Research, United Kingdom||Inactivated Virus||VLA2001||2||Day 0 + 21||IM||Clinical [Phase 3]|
|56||Biological E. Limited||Protein subunit||BECOV2||2||Day 0 + 28||IM||Clinical [Phase 1/2]|
|57||Cellid Co., Ltd.||Viral vector (Replicating)||AdCLD-CoV19 (adenovirus vector)||1||Day 0||IM||Clinical [Phase 1/2]|
|58||GeneOne Life Science, Inc.||DNA based vaccine||GLS-5310||2||Day 0 + 56 or Day 0 + 84||ID||Clinical [Phase 1/2]|
|59||Nanogen Pharmaceutical Biotechnology||Protein subunit||Recombinant Sars-CoV-2 Spike protein, Aluminum adjuvanted||2||Day 0 + 21||IM||Clinical [Phase 1/2]|
|60||Shionogi||Protein subunit||Recombinant protein vaccine S-268019 (using Baculovirus expression vector system)||2||Day 0 + 21||IM||Clinical [Phase 1/2]|
|61||Altimmune, Inc.||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||AdCOVID, Adenovirus-based platform expresses the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the Sars-Cov-2 spike protein||1 to 2||Day 0||IN||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|62||University Medical Center Groningen + Akston Biosciences Inc.||Protein subunit||SARS-CoV-2-RBD-Fc fusion protein||-||SC or IM||Clinical [Phase 1/2]|
|63||Erciyes University||Inactivated Virus||ERUCOV-VAC, inactivated virus||2||Day 0 + 21||IM||Clinical [Phase 2]|
|64||University of Saskatchewan||Protein subunit||COVAC-1 and COVAC-2 sub-unit vaccine (spike protein) + SWE adjuvant||2||Day 0 + 28||IM||Clinical [Phase 1/2]|
|65||SK Bioscience Co., Ltd. and CEPI||Protein subunit||GBP510, a recombinant surface protein vaccine with adjuvant AS03 (aluminium hydroxide)||2||Day 0 + 28||IM||Clinical [Phase 1/2]|
|66||Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute||Protein subunit||Razi Cov Pars, recombinant spike protein||3||Day 0 + 21 +51||IM and IN||Clinical [Phase 2]|
|67||Shifa Pharmed Industrial Co||Inactivated Virus||COVID-19 inactivated vaccine||2||Day 0 + 14||IM||Clinical [Phase 2/3]|
|68||The University of Queensland||Protein subunit||MF59 adjuvanted SARS-CoV-2 Sclamp vaccine||2||Day 0 + 28||IM||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|69||University of Sydney, Bionet Co., Ltd Technovalia||DNA based vaccine||COVIGEN||2||Day 0 + 28||ID or IM||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|70||Takis + Rottapharm Biotech||DNA based vaccine||COVID-eVax, a candidate plasmid DNA vaccine of the Spike protein||-||IM or||Clinical [Phase 1/2]|
|71||Bharat Biotech International Limited||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||BBV154, Adenoviral vector COVID-19 vaccine||1||Day 0||IN||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|72||Providence Therapeutics||RNA based vaccine||PTX-COVID19-B, mRNA vaccine||2||Day 0 + 28||IM||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|73||The Government Pharmaceutical Organization (GPO); PATH; Dynavax||Inactivated virus||Inactivated (NDV-based) chimeric vaccine with or without the adjuvant CpG 1018||2||Day 0 + 28||IM||Clinical [Phase 1/2]|
|74||GlaxoSmithKline||RNA based vaccine||CoV2 SAM (LNP) vaccine. A self-amplifying mRNA (SAM) lipid nanoparticle (LNP) platform + Spike antigen||-||Day 0 + 28||IM||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|75||VBI Vaccines Inc.||Virus like particle||VBI-2902a. An enveloped virus-like particle (eVLP) of SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein and aluminum phosphate adjuvant.||2||Day 0 + 28||IM||Clinical [Phase 1/2]|
|76||SK Bioscience Co., Ltd.||Protein subunit||SK SARS-CoV-2 recombinant surface antigen protein subunit (NBP2001) + adjuvanted with alum.||2||Day 0 + 28||IM||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|77||Gritstone Oncology||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||Chimpanzee Adenovirus serotype 68 (ChAd) and self-amplifying mRNA (SAM) vectors expressing spike alone, or spike plus additional SARS-CoV-2 T cell epitopes.||2 to 3||Day 0 + 14 + 28 or Day 0 +28 + 56 or Day 0 + 112||IM||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|78||Moderna + National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)||RNA based vaccine||mRNA-1273.351. A lipid nanoparticle (LNP)-encapsulated mRNA-based vaccine that encodes for a full-length, prefusion stabilized S protein of the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.351 variant.||3||Day 0 or Day 0 + 28 or Day 56||IM||Clinical [Phase 2]|
|79||Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR)||Protein subunit||SpFN (spike ferritin nanoparticle) uses spike proteins with a liposomal formulation QS21 (ALFQ) adjuvant.||2 to 3||Day 0 + 28 + 180||IM||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|80||POP Biotechnologies and EuBiologics Co.,Ltd||Protein subunit||EuCorVac-19; A spike protein using the recombinant protein technology and with an adjuvant.||2||Day 0 + 21||IM||Clinical [Phase 1/2]|
|81||Organization of Defensive Innovation and Research||Inactivated virus||Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine FAKHRAVAC (MIVAC)||2||Day 0 + 14 +/- 21||IM||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|82||Meissa Vaccines, Inc.||Live attenuated virus||MV-014-212, a live attenuated vaccine that expresses the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2||3||Day 0 +/- 35||IN||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|83||Sanofi Pasteur and Translate Bio||RNA based vaccine||MRT5500, an mRNA vaccine candidate||2||Day 0 + 21||IM||Clinical [Phase 1/2]|
|84||The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey||Virus like particle||SARS-CoV-2 VLP Vaccine||2||Day 0||SC||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|85||Jiangsu Rec-Biotechnology||Protein subunit||ReCOV: Recombinant two-component spike and RBD protein COVID-19 vaccine (CHO cell).||2||Day 0 + 21||IM||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|86||Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd.||RNA based vaccine||DS-5670a, mRNA vaccine||2||IM||Clinical [Phase 1/2]|
|87||Kocak Farma||Inactivated Virus||Inactivated COVID-19 vaccine||2||Day 0 + 21||IM||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|88||Institute of Vaccines and Medical Biologicals, Vietnam||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||COVIVAC. Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) expressing membrane-anchored pre-fusion-stabilized trimeric SARS-CoV-2 S protein +/- adjuvant CpG 1018||2||Day 0 + 28||IM||Clinical [Phase 1/2]|
|89||Tetherex Pharmaceuticals Corporation||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||SC-Ad6-1, Adneviral vector vaccine||1 to 2||Day 0 +/- 21||IM||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|90||Radboud University||Virus like particle||ABNCoV2 capsid virus-like particle (cVLP) +/- adjuvant MF59||2||Day 0 + 28||IM||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|91||Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention/Gaozhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention||Protein subunit||Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Fusion Protein Vaccine (V-01)||2||Day 0 + 21||IM||Clinical [Phase 2]|
|92||SENAI CIMATEC||RNA based vaccine||HDT-301: Self-replicating mRNA vaccine formulated as a lipid nanoparticle.||2||Day 0 + 28||IM||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|93||The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBITAK)||Inactivated Virus||Adjuvanted inactivated vaccine against SARS-CoV-2||2||Day 0 + 21||SC||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|94||ModernaTX, Inc.||RNA based vaccine||mRNA-1283||2||Day 0 + 28||IM||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|95||National Vaccine and Serum Institute, China||Protein subunit||Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (CHO cell)||2||Day 0||IM||Clinical [Phase 1/2]|
|96||Elixirgen Therapeutics, Inc||RNA based vaccine||EXG-5003; a temperature-sensitive self-replicating RNA vaccine expressing the receptor binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.||1||Day 0||ID||Clinical [Phase 1/2]|
|97||KM Biologics Co., Ltd.||Inactivated Virus||Inactivated COVID-19 vaccine||2||Day 0 + 28||IM||Clinical [Phase 1/2]|
|98||Laboratorio Avi-Mex||Inactivated Virus||Live recombinant Newcastle Disease Virus (rNDV) vector vaccine||2||Day 0 + 21||IM or IN||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|99||Shanghai East Hospital and Stemirna Therapeutics||RNA based vaccine||mRNA COVID-19 vaccine||2||-||IM||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|100||University of Oxford||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||ChAdOx1-S - (AZD1222) / Covishield / Vaxzevria||1 to 2||Day 0 + 28||IN||Clinical [Phase 1]|
|101||DIOSynVax Ltd + University of Cambridge||DNA based vaccine||DNA, engineered vaccine inserts compatible with multiple delivery systems||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|102||Ege University||DNA based vaccine||DNA vaccine||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|103||Scancell/University of Nottingham/ Nottingham Trent University||DNA based vaccine||DNA plasmid vaccine RBD&N||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|104||Karolinska Institute / Cobra Biologics (OPENCORONA Project)||DNA based vaccine||DNA with electroporation||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|105||Chula Vaccine Research Center||DNA based vaccine||DNA with electroporation||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|106||Immunomic Therapeutics, Inc./EpiVax, Inc./PharmaJet||DNA based vaccine||Plasmid DNA, Needle-Free Delivery||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|107||National Research Centre, Egypt||DNA based vaccine||DNA plasmid vaccine S,S1,S2,RBD &N||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|108||BioNet Asia||DNA based vaccine||DNA vaccine||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|109||Mediphage Bioceuticals/University of Waterloo||DNA based vaccine||msDNA vaccine||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|110||Entos Pharmaceuticals||DNA based vaccine||DNA vaccine||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|111||Biosun Pharmed||DNA based vaccine||DNA plasmids containing S-gene||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|112||Globe Biotech Limited, Bangladesh||DNA based vaccine||DNA plasmid vaccine||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|113||National institute of Chemistry, Slovenia||DNA based vaccine||Plasmid DNA, nanostructured RBD||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|114||Vaccibody, Oslo Research Park, Norway||DNA based vaccine||DNA plasmid vaccine encoding RBD||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|115||Inserm||DNA based vaccine||DNA Immunostimulatory sequences||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|116||Center of Genomics and Bioinformatics of Academy of Science of Republic of Uzbekistan||DNA based vaccine||The 3 regions of SARS-Cov-2 Spike-protein: NTD, RBD and HR1-HR2 inserted into the plasmid of PcDNA3.1 (+).||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|117||Institute Butantan (Brazil) / Dynavax / PATH||Inactivated virus||Egg-based, inactivated, whole chimeric Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) expressing membrane-anchored pre-fusion-stabilized trimeric SARS-CoV-2 S protein (Hexapro) + CpG 1018||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|118||KM Biologics||Inactivated virus||Inactivated + alum||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|119||Selcuk University||Inactivated virus||Inactivated||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|120||Osaka University/ BIKEN/ NIBIOHN||Inactivated virus||-||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|121||Sinovac/Dynavax||Inactivated virus||Inactivated + CpG 1018||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|122||Valneva/Dynavax||Inactivated virus||Inactivated + CpG 1018||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|123||National Research Centre, Egypt||Inactivated virus||Inactivated whole virus||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|124||Milad Pharmaceutics Co.||Inactivated virus||Inactivated||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|125||Zista Kian Azma Co.||Inactivated virus||Inactivated||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|126||Mehmet Ali Aydinlar University / Acıbadem Labmed Health Services A.S.||Live attenuated virus||Codon deoptimized live attenuated vaccines||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|127||Indian Immunologicals Ltd/Griffith University||Live attenuated virus||Codon deoptimized live attenuated vaccines||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|128||Institut Pasteur Lille, Inserm||Live attenuated bacterial vector||Live attenuated bacterial (Pertussis) Vector||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|129||ALtraBio, TheRex||Live attenuated bacterial vector||Live attenuated bacterial vector||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|130||ID Pharma||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||Sendai virus vector||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|131||Max Planck Institute for Biochemstry/vir4vac, Germany||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||Sendai virus vector||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|132||Ankara University||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||Adenovirus-based||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|133||Massachusetts Eye and Ear/Massachusetts General Hospital/AveXis||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||Adeno-associated virus vector (AAVCOVID)||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|134||GeoVax/BravoVax||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||MVA encoded VLP||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|135||DZIF – German Center for Infection Research/IDT Biologika GmbH||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||MVA-S encoded||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|136||IDIBAPS-Hospital Clinic, Spain||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||MVA-S||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|137||Erciyes University||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||Adeno5-based||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|138||Greffex||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||Ad5 S (GREVAX™ platform)||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|139||Stabilitech Biopharma Ltd||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||Oral Ad5 S||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|140||Valo Therapeutics Ltd||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||adenovirus-based + HLA-matched peptides||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|141||Centro Nacional Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC), Spain||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||MVA expressing structural proteins||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|142||University of Georgia/University of Iowa||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5)-based vaccine expressing the spike protein||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|143||Bharat Biotech/Thomas Jefferson University||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||Recombinant deactivated rabies virus containing S1||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|144||National Research Centre, Egypt||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||Influenza A H1N1 vector||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|145||Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||Newcastle disease virus expressing the spike protein||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|146||Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||Newcastle disease virus expressing membrane-anchored spike||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|147||Theravectys – Institut Pasteur||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||Lentiviral Vector||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|148||AIOVA||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||Lentiviral Vector||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|149||Sorbonne University||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||Lentiviral Vector Retro-VLP Particles||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|150||University of Helsinki & University of Eastern Finland||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||Ad 5 vector for intranasal administration||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|151||Vaxart||Viral vector (Non-replicating)||Oral vaccine platform||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|152||Ohio State University / Kazakh National Agrarian University||Protein subunit||RBD protein delivered in mannose-conjugated chitosan nanoparticle||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|153||Kazakh National Agrarian University||Protein subunit||Recombinant spike protein with Essai O/W 1849101 adjuvant||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|155||Kazakh National Agrarian University, Kazakhstan / National Scientific Center for Especially Dangerous Infections||Protein subunit||Recombinant spike protein with Essai O/W 1849101 adjuvant||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|156||Max-Planck-Institute of Colloids and Interfaces||Protein subunit||Recombinant S protein||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|157||Farmacológicos Veterinarios SAC (FARVET SAC) / Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia (UPCH)||Protein subunit||RBD protein (baculovirus production) + FAR-Squalene adjuvant||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|158||Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems, Rep of Kazakhstan||Protein subunit||Protein Subunit||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|160||Izmir Biomedicine and Genome Center||Protein subunit||Recombinant S protein||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|161||Bogazici University||Protein subunit||Peptide + novel adjuvant||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|162||University of Virginia||Protein subunit||S subunit intranasal liposomal formulation with GLA/3M052 adjs.||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|163||Helix Biogen Consult, Ogbomoso & Trinity Immonoefficient Laboratory, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.||Protein subunit||S-Protein (Subunit) + Adjuvant, E coli based Expression||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|164||National Research Centre, Egypt||Protein subunit||Protein Subunit S,N,M&S1 protein||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|165||University of San Martin and CONICET, Argentina||Protein subunit||Protein Subunit||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|166||Chulalongkorn University/GPO, Thailand||Protein subunit||RBD protein fused with Fc of IgG + Adj.||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|167||AdaptVac (PREVENT-nCoV consortium)||Protein subunit||Capsid-like Particle||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|168||ExpreS2ion||Protein subunit||Drosophila S2 insect cell expression system VLPs||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|169||IMV Inc||Protein subunit||Peptide antigens formulated in LNP||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|170||WRAIR/USAMRIID||Protein subunit||S protein||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|171||National Institute of Infectious Disease, Japan/Shionogi/UMN Pharma||Protein subunit||S protein +Adjuvant||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|172||Osaka University/ BIKEN/ National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Japan||Protein subunit||VLP-recombinant protein + Adjuvant||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|173||Univ. of Pittsburgh||Protein subunit||microneedle arrays S1 subunit||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|174||Vaxil Bio||Protein subunit||Peptide||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|175||Biological E Ltd||Protein subunit||Adjuvanted protein subunit (RBD)||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|176||Flow Pharma Inc||Protein subunit||Peptide||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|177||AJ Vaccines||Protein subunit||S protein||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|178||Generex/EpiVax||Protein subunit||Ii-Key peptide||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|179||EpiVax/Univ. of Georgia||Protein subunit||S protein||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|180||EpiVax||Protein subunit||Protein Subunit EPV-CoV-19||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|181||Heat Biologics/Univ. Of Miami||Protein subunit||gp-96 backbone||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|182||FBRI SRC VB VECTOR, Rospotrebnadzor, Koltsovo||Protein subunit||Subunit vaccine||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|183||Baylor College of Medicine||Protein subunit||S1 or RBD protein||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|184||iBio/CC-Pharming||Protein subunit||Subunit protein, plant produced||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|185||Saint-Petersburg scientific research institute of vaccines and serums||Protein subunit||Recombinant protein, nanoparticles (based on S-protein and other epitopes)||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|186||FSUE SPbSRIVS FMBA of Russia (St. Petersburg Institute of Vaccines)||Protein subunit||Cross-reactive T-cell recombinant vaccine based on SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein (N) expressed in E.coli||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|187||Innovax/Xiamen Univ./GSK||Protein subunit||COVID-19 XWG-03 truncated S (spike) proteins||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|188||VIDO-InterVac, University of Saskatchewan||Protein subunit||Adjuvanted microsphere peptide||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|189||OncoGen||Protein subunit||Synthetic Long Peptide Vaccine candidate for S and M proteins||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|190||MIGAL Galilee Research Institute||Protein subunit||Oral E. coli-based protein expression system of S and N proteins||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|191||LakePharma, Inc.||Protein subunit||Nanoparticle vaccine||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|192||Baiya Phytopharm/ Chula Vaccine Research Center||Protein subunit||Plant-based subunit (RBD-Fc + Adjuvant)||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|193||Quadram Institute Biosciences||Protein subunit||OMV-based vaccine||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|194||BiOMViS Srl/Univ. of Trento||Protein subunit||OMV-based vaccine||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|195||Lomonosov Moscow State University||Protein subunit||structurally modified spherical particles of the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|196||University of Alberta||Protein subunit||Spike-based||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|197||AnyGo Technology||Protein subunit||Recombinant S1-Fc fusion protein||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|198||Yisheng Biopharma||Protein subunit||Recombinant protein||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|199||Vabiotech, Vietnam and University of Bristol, UK||Protein subunit||Recombinant S protein in IC-BEVS (Viral vector vaccine (based on baculovirus expression system in insect cell line)||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|200||Applied Biotechnology Institute, Inc.||Protein subunit||Orally delivered, heat stable subunit||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|201||Axon Neuroscience SE||Protein subunit||Peptides derived from Spike protein||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|202||MOGAM Institute for Biomedical Research, GC Pharma||Protein subunit||Protein Subunit||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|203||Neovii/Tel Aviv University||Protein subunit||RBD-based||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|204||Intravacc/Epivax||Protein subunit||Outer Membrane Vesicle (OMV)-subunit||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|205||ImmunoPrecise/LiteVax BV||Protein subunit||Spike-based (epitope screening)||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|206||Nanografi Nano Technology, Middle East Technical University, Ankara University,||Protein subunit||Spiked-based||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|207||Iran||Protein subunit||Recombinant spike with adjuvant||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|208||Tampere University||Protein subunit||Recombinant S protein produced in BEVS||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|209||Vaxinano, CEA, INRAE||Protein subunit||Protein Subunit Nanoformulated||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|210||CEA, CNRS||Protein subunit||Protein Subunit Adenoviral Carrier||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|211||LinkinVax, VRI, Inserm||Protein subunit||Protein DC-targeted epitopes||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|212||Center for Advanced Technologies, Uzbekistan||Protein subunit||Soluble recombinant S protein produced in CHO cells||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|213||Arizona State University||Protein subunit||NYVAC-KC, attenuated vaccinia virus vector expressing SARS-CoV-2 Spike and other viral proteins||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|214||Hacettepe University, Turkey||Protein subunit||Protein peptides with alum||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|215||Marmara University, Turkey||Protein subunit||Recombinant Spike (S) proteins encoded by Baculoviruses in Insect cells||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|216||Yıldız Technical University, Turkey||Protein subunit||Adjuvanted Peptides + Recombinant Spike Protein||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|217||Akdeniz University, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Antalya, Turkey||Protein subunit||Development of recombinant protein based S1 and S2 (Spike) and nucleocapsid subunits vaccines using a plant expression vector.||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|218||Ataturk University, Vaccine Research Center (Erzurum) and Health Institutes of Turkey (TUSEB)||Protein subunit||Recombinant Protein Vaccine||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|219||Pharmada Pharmaceuticals/TURKEY||Protein subunit||Recombinant protein subunit vaccine||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|220||CinnaGen Co||Protein subunit||Recombinant Spike Protein||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|221||Farmacológicos Veterinarios SAC (FARVET SAC)||Bacterial vector (Replicating)||Oral Salmonella enteritidis (3934Vac) based protein expression system of RBD||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|222||KU Leuven||Viral vector (Replicating)||YF17D Vector||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|223||Cadila Healthcare Limited||Viral vector (Replicating)||Measles Vector||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|224||FBRI SRC VB VECTOR, Rospotrebnadzor, Koltsovo||Viral vector (Replicating)||Measles Vector||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|225||DZIF – German Center for Infection Research/CanVirex AG||Viral vector (Replicating)||Measles Virus (S, N targets)||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|226||Tonix Pharma/Southern Research||Viral vector (Replicating)||Horsepox vector expressing S protein||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|227||BiOCAD and IEM||Viral vector (Replicating)||Live viral vectored vaccine based on attenuated influenza virus backbone (intranasal)||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|228||FBRI SRC VB VECTOR, Rospotrebnadzor, Koltsovo||Viral vector (Replicating)||Recombinant vaccine based on Influenza A virus, for the prevention of COVID-19 (intranasal)||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|229||Fundação Oswaldo Cruz and Instituto Buntantan||Viral vector (Replicating)||Attenuated Influenza expressing an antigenic portion of the Spike protein||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|230||University of Hong Kong||Viral vector (Replicating)||Influenza vector expressing RBD||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|231||IAVI/Merck||Viral vector (Replicating)||Replication-competent VSV chimeric virus technology (VSVΔG) delivering the SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) glycoprotein.||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|232||University of Manitoba||Viral vector (Replicating)||Replicating VSV vector-based DC-targeting||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|233||University of Western Ontario||Viral vector (Replicating)||VSV-S||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|234||Aurobindo||Viral vector (Replicating)||VSV-S||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|235||FBRI SRC VB VECTOR, Rospotrebnadzor, Koltsovo||Viral vector (Replicating)||VSV vector||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|236||UW–Madison/FluGen/Bharat Biotech||Viral vector (Replicating)||M2-deficient single replication (M2SR) influenza vector||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|237||Intravacc/ Wageningen Bioveterinary Research/Utrecht Univ.||Viral vector (Replicating)||Newcastle disease virus vector (NDV-SARS-CoV-2/Spike)||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|238||The Lancaster University, UK||Viral vector (Replicating)||Avian paramyxovirus vector (APMV)||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|239||Farmacológicos Veterinarios SAC (FARVET SAC)||Viral vector (Replicating)||Intranasal Newcastle disease virus vector (rNDV-LS1-FARVET) expressing RBD protein: rNDV-LS1-HN-RBD/SARS-CoV-2||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|240||Farmacológicos Veterinarios SAC (FARVET SAC)||Viral vector (Replicating)||Intranasal Newcastle disease virus vector (rNDV-LS1-FARVET) expressing S1 protein: rNDV-LS1-S1-F/SARS-CoV-2||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|241||Infectious Disease Research Institute/ Amyris, Inc.||RNA based vaccine||saRNA formulated in a NLC||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|242||Max-Planck-Institute of Colloids and Interfaces||RNA based vaccine||LNP-encapsulated mRNA encoding S||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|243||Gennova||RNA based vaccine||Self-amplifying RNA||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|244||Selcuk University||RNA based vaccine||mRNA||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|245||Translate Bio/Sanofi Pasteur||RNA based vaccine||LNP-mRNA||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|246||CanSino Biologics/Precision NanoSystems||RNA based vaccine||LNP-mRNA||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|247||Fudan University/ Shanghai JiaoTong University/RNACure Biopharma||RNA based vaccine||LNP-encapsulated mRNA cocktail encoding VLP||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|248||Fudan University/ Shanghai JiaoTong University/RNACure Biopharma||RNA based vaccine||LNP-encapsulated mRNA encoding RBD||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|249||Centro Nacional Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC), Spain||RNA based vaccine||Replicating Defective SARS-CoV-2 derived RNAs||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|250||University of Tokyo/ Daiichi-Sankyo||RNA based vaccine||LNP-encapsulated mRNA||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|251||BIOCAD||RNA based vaccine||Liposome-encapsulated mRNA||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|252||RNAimmune, Inc.||RNA based vaccine||Several mRNA candidates||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|253||FBRI SRC VB VECTOR, Rospotrebnadzor, Koltsovo||RNA based vaccine||mRNA||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|254||China CDC/Tongji University/Stermina||RNA based vaccine||mRNA||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|255||eTheRNA||RNA based vaccine||mRNA in an intranasal delivery system||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|256||Greenlight Biosciences||RNA based vaccine||mRNA||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|257||IDIBAPS-Hospital Clinic, Spain||RNA based vaccine||mRNA||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|258||Providence Therapeutics||RNA based vaccine||mRNA||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|259||Cell Tech Pharmed||RNA based vaccine||mRNA||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|260||ReNAP Co.||RNA based vaccine||mRNA||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|261||Globe Biotech Ltd||RNA based vaccine||D614G variant LNP-encapsulated mRNA||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|262||CEA||RNA based vaccine||Encapsulated mRNA||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|263||Medigen Vaccines Biologics Corp (MVC)/Vaxess Technologies (MIMIX)||RNA based vaccine||Recombinant, prefusion stabilized SARS-CoV-2 Spike antigen||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|264||Ziphius Vaccines and Ghent University||RNA based vaccine||ZIP1642 is a self-amplifying RNA vaccine encapsulated in an LNP, which encodes for multiple antigens, including the Spike (S) protein.||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|265||OSE immunotherapeutics||Protein subunit||Multiple peptides fragments targeting (S, M, N) and (NSPs) SARS-CoV-2 proteins to induce T cell responses (CD8)||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|266||Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems||Virus like particle||VLP||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|267||University of Manitoba||Virus like particle||Virus-like particle-based Dendritic Cell(DC)-targeting vaccine||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|268||Bezmialem Vakif University||Virus like particle||VLP||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|269||VBI Vaccines Inc.||Virus like particle||Enveloped Virus-Like Particle (eVLP)||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|270||IrsiCaixa AIDS Research/IRTA-CReSA/Barcelona Supercomputing Centre/Grifols||Virus like particle||S protein integrated in HIV VLPs||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|271||Mahidol University/ The Government Pharmaceutical Organization (GPO)/Siriraj Hospital||Virus like particle||VLP + Adjuvant||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|272||Navarrabiomed, Oncoimmunology group||Virus like particle||Virus-like particles, lentivirus and baculovirus vehicles||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|273||Saiba GmbH||Virus like particle||Virus-like particle, based on RBD displayed on virus-like particles||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|274||Imophoron Ltd and Bristol University’s Max Planck Centre||Virus like particle||ADDomerTM multiepitope display||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|275||Doherty Institute||Virus like particle||Unknown||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|276||OSIVAX||Virus like particle||VLP||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|277||ARTES Biotechnology||Virus like particle||eVLP||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|278||Univ. of Sao Paulo||Virus like particle||VLPs peptides/whole virus||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|279||Tampere University||Virus like particle||VLPs produced in BEVS||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|280||Shiraz University||Virus like particle||Plant derived VLP||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|281||Arizona State University||Virus like particle||Myxoma virus co-expressing S, M, N and E proteins||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|282||Arizona State University||Virus like particle||Plasmid driven production of virus -Like-Particles (VLPs) containing S, M, N and E proteins of SARS-CoV-2||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|283||Berna Biotech Pharma||Virus like particle||Virus Like Particle with RCB||-||-||-||Preclinical|
|284||Cell Tech Pharmed||Cellular based vaccine||Engineered human mesenchymal stem cells transfected with a plasmid expressing S and N-protein||-||-||-||Preclinical|
COVID-19 vaccine efficiencies
Vaccine efficiencies (VE) have been collected from publications and reports for the COVID-19 vaccines that are being globally rolled out on a massive scale. Efficiencies against various stages of the disease (Severe, Moderate, Mild), other determinants of severity (hospitalization, death), locations of the trial or study, dose dependencies, sample numbers as well as other relevant additional details are mentioned (Table 1).
Table 1: VE for top candidates.
|S. No||Developer||VE (%)||Disease Stage||Dose||Analysis||Location||Comments||Reference|
|1||AstraZeneca||22.20%||Asymptomatic||2||Phase 2/3 (Interim; n=8207)||UK||4|
|2||AstraZeneca||76.00%||Asymptomatic||1||Phase 2/3 (Interim; n=8207)||UK||4|
|3||AstraZeneca||66.70%||Symptomatic||2||Interim (n=17178)||UK, Brazil, South Africa||Pooled data - 4 trials||4|
|4||AstraZeneca||54.10%||Any disease||2||Interim (n=17178)||UK, Brazil, South Africa||4|
|5||AstraZeneca||100.00%||Hospitalization||2||Interim (n=17178)||UK, Brazil, South Africa||Pooled data - 4 trials||4|
|6||AstraZeneca||76.00%||Symptomatic||1||Interim (n=17178)||UK, Brazil, South Africa||22-90 d; Pooled data (4 trials)||4|
|7||AstraZeneca||63.90%||Any disease||1||Interim (n=17178)||UK||Pooled data - 4 trials||4|
|8||AstraZeneca||81.50%||Symptomatic||2||Interim (n=8534)||UK||Non B.1.1.7||12|
|9||AstraZeneca||77.30%||Any disease||2||Interim (n=8534)||UK||Non B.1.1.7||12|
|11||AstraZeneca||60.00%||Infection||1||n=215||UK||70+ years; 28-34 d||27|
|12||AstraZeneca||73.00%||Infection||1||n=36||UK||70+ years; 35 d onwards||27|
|13||AstraZeneca||37.00%||Death||1||n=9018||UK||80+ years; 14 d or later||27|
|14||AstraZeneca||21.90%||Mild-Moderate||2||Phase 1/2 (Interim; n=2026)||South Africa||29|
|15||CanSino Bio||95.47%||Severe||1||Phase 3 (Interim; n=40000)||Chile, Pakistan & others||14 d; 90.07% after 28 d||7|
|16||CanSino Bio||68.83%||Symptomatic||1||Phase 3 (Interim; n=40000)||Chile, Pakistan & others||14 d; 65.28% after 28 d||7|
|17||CanSino Bio||100.00%||Severe||1||Phase 3 (Interim)||Pakistan||7|
|18||CanSino Bio||74.80%||Symptomatic||1||Phase 3 (Interim)||Pakistan||7|
|19||Covaxin||78.00%||Any disease||2||Phase 3 (Interim; n=25800)||India||20|
|20||Covaxin||100.00%||Severe||2||Phase 3 (Interim; n=25800)||India||20|
|21||Covaxin||70.00%||Asymptomatic||2||Phase 3 (Interim; n=25800)||India||20|
|22||Covaxin||81.00%||Any disease||2||Phase 3 (Interim; n=25800)||India||32|
|23||Johnson & Johnson||66.90%||Moderate-Severe||1||Phase 3 (Interim; n=39321)||US, Argentina, Brazil & others||14 d; 66.1% after 28 d||19|
|24||Johnson & Johnson||76.70%||Moderate-Severe||1||Phase 3 (Interim; n=39321)||US, Argentina, Brazil & others||14 d; 85.4% after 28 d||19|
|25||Johnson & Johnson||93.10%||Hospitalization||1||Phase 3 (Interim; n=39321)||US, Argentina, Brazil & others||14 d; 100% after 28 d||19|
|26||Johnson & Johnson||76.70%||Any disease||1||n=24145||US||15+ d; Mayo Clinic EHRs||24|
|27||Moderna||94.10%||Any disease||2||Phase 3 (Interim; n=30000)||US||2|
|28||Moderna||93.00%||Mild||1||Phase 3 (Interim; n=3732)||US||14 d; Adolescents||34|
|29||Moderna||100.00%||Any disease||2||Phase 2/3 (Interim; n=3732)||US||12-17 years||34|
|30||Novavax||96.40%||Any disease||2||Phase 3 (Final; n=15187)||UK||86.3% against B1.1.7||28|
|31||Pfizer||95.00%||Any disease||2||Phase 3 (Interim; n=43448)||US & others||1|
|32||Pfizer||52.00%||Any disease||1||Phase 3 (Interim; n=43448)||US & others||1|
|33||Pfizer||63.00%||Any disease||1||n=463||US||Skilled nursing facility; 14 d through 7 d after D2||6|
|34||Pfizer||100.00%||Any disease||2||Phase 3 (Interim; n=2260)||US||12 to 15 year olds||8|
|37||Pfizer||92.00%||Any disease||2||n=596618||Israel||Mass vaccination||14|
|41||Pfizer||46.00%||Any disease||1||n=596618||Israel||Mass vaccination||14|
|46||Pfizer||86.00%||Any disease||2||n=805741||Sweden||7+ d; 18-64 years||18|
|47||Pfizer||42.00%||Any disease||1||n=805741||Sweden||14+ d; 18-64 years||18|
|48||Pfizer||91.00%||Hospitalization||1||n=711839||Scotland||B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 dominant||21|
|51||Pfizer||97.40%||Severe||2||n=3390||Qatar||B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 dominant||25|
|52||Pfizer||39.40%||Severe||1||n=4210||Qatar||B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 dominant||25|
|53||Pfizer||89.00%||Infection||2||n=675||UK||80 years and older; 14+ d||27|
|54||Pfizer||43.00%||Death||2||n=10292||UK||80+ years; 14 d or later||27|
|55||Pfizer||70.00%||Infection||1||n=362||UK||80+ years; 28-34 d||27|
|56||Pfizer||100.00%||Any disease||2||Phase 3 (n=2260)||US||Adolescents; 7+ d||36|
|57||Pfizer||42.00%||Any disease||2||n=13469||Denmark||Vaccination priority groups; 0-7 d||37|
|58||Pfizer||82.00%||Any disease||2||n=13601||Denmark||Vaccination priority groups; 7 d or more||37|
|59||Pfizer||90.00%||Hospitalization||2||n=1021||Denmark||Vaccination priority groups; 0-7 d||37|
|60||Pfizer||90.00%||Hospitalization||2||n=1021||Denmark||Vaccination priority groups; 0-7 d||37|
|61||Pfizer||94.00%||Death||2||n=1021||Denmark||Vaccination priority groups; 0-7 d||37|
|62||Pfizer||7.00%||Any disease||1||n=13907||Denmark||Vaccination priority groups; 14 d to D2||37|
|63||Pfizer||35.00%||Hospitalization||1||n=1130||Denmark||Vaccination priority groups; 14 d to D2||37|
|64||Pfizer||51.00%||Any disease||1||n=503875||Israel||13-24 d||38|
|66||Sinopharm||78.10%||Any disease||2||Phase 3 (Interim; n=13765)||China, UAE & others||112 d||23|
|67||Sinopharm||78.70%||Hospitalization||2||Phase 3 (Interim; n=13765)||China, UAE & others||112 d||23|
|68||Sinopharm||90.00%||Any disease||2||Phase 3 (Interim; n=7782)||Bahrain||14 d; 91% VE for elderly||23|
|69||Sinopharm||72.80%||Symptomatic||1||Interim (n=13465)||UAE, Bahrain||HB02 (4 ug/dose)||35|
|70||Sinopharm||78.10%||Symptomatic||1||Interim (n=13459)||UAE, Bahrain||WIV04 (5 ug/dose)||35|
|71||Sinovac||100.00%||Death||2||Phase 3 (Interim; n=12396)||Brazil||3|
|72||Sinovac||83.70%||Hospitalization||2||Phase 3 (Interim; n=12396)||Brazil||3|
|73||Sinovac||50.65%||Any disease||2||Phase 3 (Interim; n=12396)||Brazil||3|
|74||Sinovac||91.25%||Any disease||2||Phase 3 (Interim; n=6453)||Turkey||3|
|80||Sinovac||50.70%||Symptomatic||2||Phase 3 (n=9823)||Brazil||HCWs: 14 d||13|
|81||Sinovac||83.70%||Mild-Moderate||2||Phase 3 (n=9823)||Brazil||HCWs: 14 d||13|
|82||Sinovac||100.00%||Severe||2||Phase 3 (n=9823)||Brazil||HCWs: 14 d||13|
|83||Sinovac||67.00%||Any disease||2||n=10500000||Chile||14 d after D2; VoC in circulation - P.1, B.1.1.7||16|
|84||Sinovac||85.00%||Hospitalization||2||n=10500000||Chile||14 d; Dominant VoCs - P.1, B.1.1.7||16|
|85||Sinovac||89.00%||Severe||2||n=10500000||Chile||14 d; Dominant VoCs - P.1, B.1.1.7||16|
|86||Sinovac||80.00%||Death||2||n=10500000||Chile||14 d; Dominant VoCs - P.1, B.1.1.7||16|
|90||Sputnik V||91.60%||Any disease||1||Phase 3 (Interim; n=19866)||Russia||21 d after dose 1||5|
|91||Sputnik V||100.00%||Moderate-Severe||1||Phase 3 (Interim; n=19866)||Russia||21 d after dose 1||5|
|92||Sputnik V||97.60%||Any disease||2||n=3800000||Russia||Mass vaccination; 35 d after D1||17|
|S. No||Developer||VE (%)||Disease Stage||Dose||Analysis||Location||Comments||Reference|
The percentages of vaccine effectiveness (%) for major variants of concern (VoC) are listed in Table 2. The COVID-19 variants have been relabeled according to current WHO relabeling & definitions. According to the new naming system, the variant B.1.1.7 that was first discovered in the United Kingdom is now called Alpha, B.1.351 variant that was discovered first in South Africa is called Beta, and B.1.617.2 variant that was discovered in India is called Delta.
Table 2: VE for top candidates for WHO designated Variants of Concern (VoC).
|S. No||Variant||Developer||VE (%)||Disease Stage||Dose||Analysis||Location||Comments||Reference|
|13||B.1.351 (Beta)||Johnson & Johnson||52.00%||Moderate-Severe||1||Phase 3 (Interim; n=2473)||Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, South Africa, United States||14 d; 64.0% after 28 d; 94.5% cases VoC||19|
|3||B.1.1.7 (Alpha)||AstraZeneca||66.10%||Symptomatic||2||n=2117||England||Test negative case control design||33|
|4||B.1.1.7 (Alpha)||AstraZeneca||51.40%||Symptomatic||1||n=26804||England||Test negative case control design||33|
|10||B.1.1.7 (Alpha)||Pfizer||93.40%||Symptomatic||2||n=6440||England||Test negative case control design||33|
|11||B.1.1.7 (Alpha)||Pfizer||49.20%||Symptomatic||1||n=7380||England||Test negative case control design||33|
|20||B.1.617.2 (Delta)||AstraZeneca||59.80%||Symptomatic||2||n=2085||England||Test negative case control design||33|
|21||B.1.617.2 (Delta)||AstraZeneca||32.90%||Symptomatic||1||n=25897||England||Test negative case control design||33|
|22||B.1.617.2 (Delta)||Pfizer||87.90%||Symptomatic||2||n=6425||England||Test negative case control design||33|
|23||B.1.617.2 (Delta)||Pfizer||33.20%||Symptomatic||1||n=7085||England||Test negative case control design||33|
|5||B.1.1.7 (Alpha)||Novavax||86.30%||Any disease||2||Phase 3 (Final; n=15187)||United Kingdom||>50% VoC cases; 96.4% VE overall||28|
|14||B.1.351 (Beta)||Johnson & Johnson||73.10%||Severe||1||Phase 3 (Interim; n=2473)||Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, South Africa, United States||14 d; 81.7% after 28 d||19|
|24||P.1 (Gamma)||Johnson & Johnson||66.20%||Any disease||1||n=3370||Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, South Africa, United States||14 d; 68.1% after 28 d||19|
|25||P.1 (Gamma)||Johnson & Johnson||81.90%||Severe||1||n=3370||Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, South Africa, United States||14 d; 87.6% after 28 d||19|
|26||P.1 (Gamma)||Sinovac||49.60%||Symptomatic||1||n=46884||Brazil||HCWs; >75% cases P.1||11|
|27||P.1 (Gamma)||Sinovac||50.70%||Symptomatic||2||n=14332||Brazil||HCWs; 47% cases P.1||15|
|6||B.1.1.7 (Alpha)||Pfizer||89.50%||Any disease||2||n=32808||Qatar||14+ d after D2||25|
|7||B.1.1.7 (Alpha)||Pfizer||100.00%||Severe||2||n=802||Qatar||14+ d after D2||25|
|16||B.1.351 (Beta)||Pfizer||16.90%||Any disease||2||n=39150||Qatar||14+ d after D2||25|
|17||B.1.351 (Beta)||Pfizer||100.00%||Severe||2||n=600||Qatar||14+ d after D2||25|
|28||P.1 (Gamma)||Sinovac||41.60%||Any disease||2||n=15900||Brazil||Elderly||31|
|12||B.1.351 (Beta)||AstraZeneca||10.40%||Mild-Moderate||2||Phase 1/2 (Interim; n=2026)||South Africa||29|
|15||B.1.351 (Beta)||Novavax||51.00%||Any disease||2||Phase 2a/b (Interim; n=4387)||South Africa||30|
|1||B.1.1.7 (Alpha)||AstraZeneca||70.40%||Symptomatic||2||Interim; n=8534||UK||12|
|2||B.1.1.7 (Alpha)||AstraZeneca||61.70%||Any disease||2||Interim; n=8534||UK||12|
|8||B.1.1.7 (Alpha)||Pfizer||29.50%||Any disease||1||n=37934||Qatar||25|
|18||B.1.351 (Beta)||Pfizer||75.00%||Any disease||1||n=43012||Qatar||25|
|S. No||Variant||Developer||VE (%)||Disease Stage||Dose||Analysis||Location||Comments||Reference|
1. Publication: Safety and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine. NEJM (31-Dec-20). https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2034577.
2. Publication: Efficacy and Safety of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine. NEJM (04-Feb-21). https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2035389.
3. PressRelease: SINOVAC: Provide vaccines for humans to eliminate diseases. Sinovac (05-Feb-21). http://www.sinovac.com/news/shownews.php?id=426.
4. Publication: Single-dose administration and the influence of the timing of the booster dose on immunogenicity and efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine: a pooled analysis of four randomised trials. ScienceDirect (19-Feb-21). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00432-3.
5. Publication: Safety and efficacy of an rAd26 and rAd5 vector-based heterologous prime-boost COVID-19 vaccine: an interim analysis of a randomised controlled phase 3 trial in Russia. ScienceDirect (20-Feb-21). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00234-8.
6. Publication: Effectiveness of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine Among Residents of Two Skilled Nursing Facilities Experiencing COVID-19 Outbreaks — Connecticut, December 2020–February 2021. MMWR (15-Mar-21). https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7011e3.htm.
7. News: CanSinoBIO Announces Approval for its Single-Dose COVID-19 Vaccine Convidecia in Hungary. PRNewsWire (22-Mar-21). https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/cansinobio-announces-approval-for-its-single-dose-covid-19-vaccine-convidecia-in-hungary-301252978.html.
8. News: Covid-19: Pfizer reports 100% vaccine efficacy in children aged 12 to 15. The BMJ (01-Apr-21). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n881.
9. Publication: Interim Estimates of Vaccine Effectiveness of BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 COVID-19 Vaccines in Preventing SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among Health Care Personnel, First Responders, and Other Essential and Frontline Workers — Eight U.S. Locations, December 2020–March 2021. MMWR (02-Apr-21). https://dx.doi.org/10.15585%2Fmmwr.mm7013e3.
10. Others: Background document on the inactivated vaccine Sinovac-CoronaVac against COVID-19. WHO (05-Apr-21). https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-vaccines-SAGE_recommendation-Sinovac-CoronaVac-background-2021.1.
11. Preprint: Effectiveness of CoronaVac in the setting of high SARS-CoV-2 P.1 variant transmission in Brazil: A test-negative case-control study. medRxiv (07-Apr-21). https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.04.07.21255081.
12. Publication: Efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern 202012/01 (B.1.1.7): an exploratory analysis of a randomised controlled trial. ScienceDirect (10-Apr-21). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00628-0.
13. Preprint: Efficacy and Safety of a COVID-19 Inactivated Vaccine in Healthcare Professionals in Brazil: The PROFISCOV Study. SSRN Preprint (14-Apr-21). http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3822780.
14. Publication: BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine in a Nationwide Mass Vaccination Setting. NEJM (15-Apr-21). https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2101765.
15. Preprint: Performance of vaccination with CoronaVac in a cohort of healthcare workers (HCW) – preliminary report. medRxiv (15-Apr-21). https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.04.12.21255308.
16. Others: Effectiveness of the inactivated CoronaVac vaccine against SARSCoV-2 in Chile. Chile Ministry of Health (16-Apr-21). https://www.minsal.cl/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/Effectiveness-of-the-inactivated-CoronaVac-vaccine-against-SARS-CoV-2-in-Chile.pdf.
17. PressRelease: Sputnik V demonstrates 97.6% efficacy according to analysis of data from 3.8 million vaccinated persons in Russia making it the most efficient COVID-19 vaccine in the world. Official website vaccine against COVID-19 Sputnik V. (19-Apr-21). https://sputnikvaccine.com/newsroom/pressreleases/sputnik-v-demonstrates-97-6-efficacy-according-to-the-analysis-of-data-of-3-8-million-vaccinated-per/.
18. Preprint: Effectiveness of the BNT162b2 vaccine in preventing COVID-19 in the working age population – first results from a cohort study in Southern Sweden. medRxiv (21-Apr-21). https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.04.20.21254636.
19. Publication: Safety and Efficacy of Single-Dose Ad26.COV2.S Vaccine against Covid-19. NEJM (21-Apr-21). https://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2101544.
20. PressRelease: Bharat Biotech and ICMR Announce Interim Results from Phase 3 trials of COVAXIN; Demonstrates overall Interim Clinical Efficacy of 78% and 100% efficacy against Severe COVID-19 disease. Bharat Biotech (21-Apr-21). https://www.bharatbiotech.com/images/press/covaxin-phase3-clinical-trials-interim-results.pdf.
21. Publication: Interim findings from first-dose mass COVID-19 vaccination roll-out and COVID-19 hospital admissions in Scotland: a national prospective cohort study. ScienceDirect (23-Apr-21). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00677-2.
22. Publication: COVID-19 vaccine coverage in health-care workers in England and effectiveness of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine against infection (SIREN): a prospective, multicentre, cohort study. ScienceDirect (23-Apr-21). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00790-X.
23. Others: WHO Evidence Assessment: Sinopharm/BBIBP COVID-19 vaccine. WHO (29-Apr-21). https://cdn.who.int/media/docs/default-source/immunization/sage/2021/april/2_sage29apr2021_critical-evidence_sinopharm.pdf.
24. Preprint: Real-world effectiveness of Ad26.COV2.S adenoviral vector vaccine for COVID-19. medRxiv (30-Apr-21). https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.04.27.21256193.
25. Publication: Effectiveness of the BNT162b2 Covid-19 Vaccine against the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 Variants. NEJM (05-May-21). https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2104974.
26. News: Indonesia study finds China’s Sinovac COVID-19 vaccine effective in medical staff. Reuters (12-May-21). https://www.reuters.com/business/healthcare-pharmaceuticals/indonesia-study-finds-chinas-sinovac-covid-19-vaccine-effective-medical-staff-2021-05-12/.
27. Publication: Effectiveness of the Pfizer-BioNTech and Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines on covid-19 related symptoms, hospital admissions, and mortality in older adults in England: test negative case-control study. The BMJ (13-May-21). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n1088.
28. Preprint: Efficacy of the NVX-CoV2373 Covid-19 Vaccine Against the B.1.1.7 Variant. medRxiv (14-May-21). https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.05.13.21256639.
29. Publication: Efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Covid-19 Vaccine against the B.1.351 Variant. NEJM (20-May-21). https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2102214.
30. Publication: Efficacy of NVX-CoV2373 Covid-19 Vaccine against the B.1.351 Variant. NEJM (20-May-21). https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2103055.
31. Preprint: Effectiveness of the CoronaVac vaccine in the elderly population during a P.1 variant-associated epidemic of COVID-19 in Brazil: A test-negative case-control study. medRxiv (21-May-21). https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.05.19.21257472.
32. PressRelease: Bharat Biotech Announces Phase 3 Results of COVAXIN: India’s First COVID-19 Vaccine Demonstrates Interim Clinical Efficacy of 81%. Bharat Biotech (22-May-21). https://www.bharatbiotech.com/images/press/covaxin-phase3-efficacy-results.pdf.
33. Publication: Effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines against the B.1.617.2 variant. medRxiv (24-May-21). https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.05.22.21257658.
34. PressRelease: Moderna Announces TeenCOVE Study of its COVID-19 Vaccine in Adolescents Meets Primary Endpoint and Plans to Submit Data to Regulators in Early June. Moderna, Inc. (25-May-21). https://investors.modernatx.com/news-releases/news-release-details/moderna-announces-teencove-study-its-covid-19-vaccine.
35. Publication: Effect of 2 Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines on Symptomatic COVID-19 Infection in Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA (26-May-21). http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2021.8565.
36. Publication: Safety, Immunogenicity, and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 Covid-19 Vaccine in Adolescents. NEJM (27-May-21). https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2107456.
37. Preprint: Vaccine effectiveness of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine against RT-PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections, hospitalisations and mortality in prioritised risk groups. medRxiv (02-Jun-21). https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.05.27.21257583.
38. Publication: Assessment of Effectiveness of 1 Dose of BNT162b2 Vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 Infection 13 to 24 Days After Immunization. JAMA (07-Jun-21). http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.15985.
Updated: 09 June, 2021.
Monoclonal antibodies provide an alternative avenue for the prevention of COVID-19, as the vaccine development process can take at least 12-18 months. Neutralizing mAbs to SARS-CoV-2 have the potential for both therapeutic and prophylactic applications and can help to guide vaccine design and development. Numerous research groups have isolated mAbs (most often from the B cells of patients who have recently recovered from SARS-CoV-2, and in some cases from individuals who were infected with SARS-CoV in 2003). It is also possible to generate effective mAbs by immunization of humanized mice. Modern methods allow the rapid identification of pathogen-specific B cells and recovery of immunoglobulin heavy chain and light chain genes that can be expressed to produce mAbs, usually in the form of IgG. The main target of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing mAbs is the surface spike glycoprotein that mediates viral entry into host cells. Essentially all mAbs of interest target this protein. Viral infection is mediated by the interaction between the viral spike and the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2) receptor found on numerous cell types, but neutralizing mAbs block this event. Immune system of nearly everyone who recovers from COVID-19 produces antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus that causes this easily transmitted respiratory disease. mAbs are currently used to treat a variety of conditions, including asthma, cancer, Crohn’s disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. One advantage of this class of therapeutics is that the timelines for their development, testing, and approval are typically shorter than those for drugs made of chemical compounds, called small molecules. Because of these and other factors, many experts think antibody-based therapies may offer one of the best near-term options for developing safe, effective treatments for COVID-19 .
Select strategies are detailed in the section below:
Updated: 14 June, 2021.
Select strategies are detailed in the section below:
Updated: 14 June, 2021.
Select strategies are detailed in the section below:
Updated: 14 June, 2021.
The table lists various ongoing treatment efforts (Antibodies, Antivirals, Cell-based therapies and others) from developers and sponsors globally to identify a safe and efficacious solution to the pandemic. Data is collated from various sources including Publications, Press releases, WHO website and Milken Institute trackers.
|1||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Data from compassionate use in Italy released Nov 2020; first patient dosed in I-SPY trial March 2021||Narsoplimab (IV administered mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) pathway inhibitor IgG4 antibody)||Omeros Corporation / QuantumLeap Healthcare Collaborative|
|2||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||Preparing for clinical evaluation based on positive results, May 2021||MTX-COVAB, human-derived antibody||Memo Therapeutics AG / Serum Institute India|
|3||Treatment||Device||Clinical||Announced clinical trial for patients showing mild symptoms, May 2021||APR-AOS2020 for HCLO nasal spray||Applied Pharma Research (APR)|
|4||Treatment||Other||Clinical||NIH funded trial, May 2021||TXA127, formulation of the naturally occurring peptide, Angiotensin (1-7)||Constant Therapeutics|
|5||Treatment||Other||Clinical||COVA Phase 2-3 recruitment on, alllows for DMC 2nd interim analysis; May 2021||Sarconeos (BIO101), Oral MAS receptor activator||Biophytis|
|6||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Moved to clinic based on positive results, May 2021||LY-CoV1404 (LY3853113), human mAb||Eli Lilly / AbCellera|
|7||Treatment||Antivirals||Pre-clinical||Additional funding (Canada) in June 2021||BOLD-100, Ruthenium-based small molecule therapeutic||Bold Therapeutics|
|8||Treatment||Antivirals||Pre-clinical||Mice study currently underway||Two oral protease inhibitors||Sunshine Biopharma|
|9||Treatment||Antivirals||Clinical||Phase I trial in healthy patients (Mar 2021)||PF-07321332, Oral SARS-CoV2-3CL protease inhibitor||Pfizer Inc.|
|10||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase 2 (CSIR)||Niclosamide||CSIR India / Laxai Life Sciences; Hyundai Biosciences|
|11||Treatment||Antivirals||Pre-clinical||-||DehydraTECH(TM)-Enabled Remdesivir and Ebastine||Lexaria Bioscience Corp.|
|12||Treatment||Antivirals||Pre-clinical||-||Tempol||Adamis Pharmaceuticals / NIH|
|13||Treatment||Antivirals||Pre-clinical||-||Balixafortide (CXCR4 antagonist)||Polyphor AG|
|14||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Global Phase III trial (Recruiting in Feb 2021, mild-to-moderate at 10 global sites)||Regdanvimab (CT-P59)||Celltrion|
|15||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||FDA grants Fast Track Designation,May 2021||CERC-002, anti-LIGHT mAb||Cerecor Inc.|
|16||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Phase 3 trial results; Biomm seeks Phase 3 approval in Brazil; 2 phase 3 studies in Brazil (May 2021)||Leronlimab (PRO 140), a CCR5 antagonist||CytoDyn / Biomm|
|17||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||FDA EUA for mild-to-moderate COVID-19 in high-risk adults and paediatric patients, May 2021 (Phase 3 COMET-ICE trial)||VIR-7831 (Sotrovimab)||GSK / Vir Biotechnology|
|18||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Applied to FDA for EUA in May 2021||Lenzilumab, anti-GM-CSF antibody||Humanigen Inc. / Catalent Biologics|
|19||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||FDA authorized lower 1,200 mg dose in June 2021||REGEN-COV (casirivimab and imdevimab)||Regeneron / NIAID|
|20||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Treated the first subject in its Phase II/III EVADE clinical trial, May 2021||Antibodies binding to a piece of the spike protein found on multiple coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2, ADG20||Adagio Therapeutics|
|21||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||Phase 1 announced in June 2021||Centi-B9 injectable antibody||Centivax (Distributed Bio) / US NMRC|
|22||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Phase 1/2 trials ongoing (Mar 2021)||Inhaled monoclonal antibody, BI 767551, from patients||Cologne University Hospital / German Center for Infection Research / Boehringer Ingelheim|
|23||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||Completed preclinical efficacy studies, May 2021||Four mAb cocktail (TATX-03b)||ImmunoPrecise Antibodies|
|24||Treatment||Antivirals||Clinical||Phase IV trials recruiting May 2020; Monotherapy showed no benefits in China ELACOI trial||Arbidol (umifenovir), licensed in Russia and China for treatment of respiratory viral infections||Guangzhou 8th People's Hospital And Others|
|25||Treatment||Antivirals||Clinical||Phase III trial recruiting May 2020||Truvada (emtricitabine and tenofovir, both HIV-1 nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors)||University Hospital, Caen / Universidad Nacional de Colombia & others|
|26||Treatment||Antivirals||Clinical||Phase 3 clinical trial (MOVe-OUT study) Ongoing (June 2021)||EIDD-2801, oral ribonucleoside analog||Ridgeback Biotherapeutics / Drug Innovation Ventures at Emory (DRIVE) / Merck (MSD)|
|27||Treatment||Antivirals||Pre-clinical||FDA IND approved for Phase I trial; First patient dosed Nov 2020; Preclinical effects against VoC (May 2021)||SLV213, cysteine protease inhibitor||Selva Therapeutics|
|28||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Clinical||Expanded access protocol started for children; Phase II/III trial; 60 day results from RCT announced in Apr 2021||Ryoncil (remestemcel-L), allogenic mesenchymal stem cells||Mesoblast / Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network|
|29||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase III trial reports mixed results with no significant benefits, May 2021 (DARE-19 trial)||Farxiga (dapagliflozin), sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLTs) inhibitor||AstraZeneca / Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute; Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust; TACTIC-E trial studying dapagliflozin + ambrisentan|
|30||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II (90% enrolled by May 2021)||Brilacidin, a defensin mimetic||Innovation Pharmaceuticals|
|31||Treatment||Other||Clinical||FDA greenlighted Phase 3 trial for male/female patients; Add female patients to ongoing Phase 3 for male patients with mild/moderate Covid-1, May 2021.||Proxalutamide (GT0918), anti-androgen||Kintor / Applied Biology|
|32||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Completed enrollment in Phase II, May 2021.||LAU-7b (fenretinide)||Laurent Pharmaceuticals|
|33||Treatment||Other||Clinical||NRx Pharma filed for U.S. FDA requesting EUA in June 2021||Aviptadil, synthetic form of Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (RLF-100)||NeuroRx / NRx Pharma / Relief Therapeutics / Thomas Jefferson University Hospital / NYU Langone Health / Houston Methodist Hospital|
|34||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Completed enrolment for Part 2 of the Phase I NOXCOVID trial, May 2021||Veyonda (idronoxil)||Noxopharm|
|35||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase III Trial began Nov 2020.||Bucillamine, a cysteine derivative thiol-based drug||Revive Therapeutics, Ltd. / Supriya Lifescience Ltd|
|36||Treatment||Other||Clinical||SAVE-MORE trial results in May 2021 from Swedish Orphan Biovitrum; ESCAPE trial results in Jan 2021, both showing benefits||Kineret (anakinra), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist||Swedish Orphan Biovitrum / REMAP-CAP global trial / Numerous global trial sponsors|
|37||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Completed Enrollment of Phase 2/3 in June 2021.||Opaganib||RedHill Biopharma|
|38||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Pre-clinical||Strong antiviral activity in the preclinical study (May 2021)||TVGN-489 (Enriched cytotoxic T cells)||Tevogen Bio|
|39||Treatment||Other||Clinical||IRB approval to commence enrollment in its AP-018 Phase I study; May 2021||Ampion (AP-018)||Ampio Pharmaceuticals|
|40||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Anticipated completion of ongoing Phase 1 by 2021 Q2.||Emricasan (pan-caspase inhibitor)||Histogen Inc, Amerimmune, LLC|
|41||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Clinical||Phase II cleared in Brazil, May 2021||COVI-MSC (Mesenchymal stem cells)||Sorrento Therapeutics, Inc|
|42||Treatment||Antivirals||Clinical||Announced EMPATHY, a Phase II/III study in May 2021||Ensovibep (MP0420)||Novartis / Molecular Partners|
|43||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Phase III trial begun in hospitalized patients||CPI-006||Corvus Pharmaceuticals and Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University|
|44||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Phase III trial paused in jan 2021||Ultomiris (ravulizumab-cwvz), complement inhibitor||Alexion Pharmaceuticals. TACTIC-R trial|
|45||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||-||Soliris (eculizumab), complement inhibitor||Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris (Phase II); Alexion (Expanded Access Protocols)|
|46||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||-||MEDI3506, monoclonal antibody targeting interleukin 33||AstraZeneca; ACCORD trial|
|47||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||-||itolizumab, anti-CD6 IgG1 monoclonal antibody||BioCon / Equilium|
|48||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Announced Plans to Initiate Phase 3 Study in Hospitalized Patients with Severe COVID-19 on April 20, 2020.||Remsima (infliximab), anti-TNF antibody||Celltrion / University of Oxford / University Hospitals Birmingham (CATALYST trial)|
|49||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Phase I/II not yet recruiting July 2020||EB05, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory molecule (sPLA2 inhibitor)||Edesa Biotech / Light Chain Bioscience (NovImmune)|
|50||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||-||LY3127804, anti-Angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) antibody||Eli Lilly|
|51||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Phase 3 BLAZE-1 study provide additional efficacy and safety data that support the use of the dose recently granted both EUA by the U.S. FDA, and a positive scientific opinion by the EMA CHMP im march 2021.||LY-CoV555 antibody from recovered patients||Eli Lilly / AbCellera (NIH Vaccines Research Center) / Takeda|
|52||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||FDA approves Phase III trial in hospitalized patients in July 2020||Sylvant (siltuximab), interleukin-6 targeted monoclonal||EUSA Pharma / The Papa Giovanni XXII Hospital; University Hospital, Ghent; Fundacion Clinic per a la Recerca Biomédica|
|53||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Interim Phase I/II data released June 2020, part 2 of the study to start June 2020||TJM2 (TJ003234), anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor antibody||I-Mab Biopharma|
|54||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||-||IC14, recombinant chimeric anti-CD14 monoclonal antibody||Implicit Bioscience|
|55||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||-||IFX-1, anti-C5a antibody||InflaRx N.V.|
|56||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Phase II trials began November 2021||JS016 antibody candidate (LY-CoV016 + LY-CoV555)||Junshi Biosciences / Eli Lilly / Lonza / AbCellera|
|57||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Phase I/II in hospitalized patients in Israel to start 3Q 2020; Will talk to FDA in 3Q 2020; enrollment completed Sept 2020 in Israel||Antibodies from recovered COVID-19 patients||Kamada / Kedrion Biopharma / Columbia University Irving Medical Center|
|58||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Phase II trial recruiting June 2020; Case reports published June 2020||mavrilimumab, anti-granulocyte-macrophase colony-stimunlating factor receptor-alpha monoclonal antibody||Kiniksa / Cleveland Clinic / Ospedale San Raffaele|
|59||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Mayo Clinic and Houston Methodist trial results published June 2020, other trials ongoing; FDA issued Emergency Use Authorization on Aug 23, 2020||Convalescent plasma (blood plasma from recovered patients)||Multiple global research sponsors, including: New York State Department of Health; Johns Hopkins University; the Feinstein Institutes; RECOVERY trial|
|60||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Octapharma released topline results from retrospective study July 2020; Phase III study ongoing July 2020; Phase 1/2 trials began||Octagam; intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG)||Multiple global research sponsors; Octapharma USA / Sharp Memorial Hospital; Grifols|
|61||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||-||Ilaris (canakinumab), interleukin-1beta blocker||Novartis|
|62||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||-||PD-1 blocking antibody; Thymosin||Numerous trials with Chinese research sponsors|
|63||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||-||Avastin (bevacizumab), vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor||Numerous trials with Chinese research sponsors; Roche|
|64||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Initial Roche studies could be completed May or June 2020; Phase II open-label study in Italy active (April 2020), Phase III Roche global trial enrolling May 2020, Roche trial (+ remdesivir) to start June 2020; ; Phase 3 EMPACTA Trial (tocilizumab + placebo); HEPMAB (Actemra + Heparin) Phase 3 trials begin Oct 2020||Actemra (tocilizumab), interleukin-6 receptor antagonist||Numerous trials with global research sponsors; Roche; REMAP-CAP; RECOVERY|
|65||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||-||Gimsilumab, anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor monoclonal||Roivant Sciences|
|66||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Phase II/III trials began Jul 2020||BDB-001, monocloncal anti-C5a antibody||Staidson / Pivotal|
|67||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Phase II/III recruiting April 2020||Gamifant (emapalumab), anti-interferon gamma antibody||Swedish Orphan Biovitrum|
|68||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Phase II/III efficacy trials begin Oct 2020||meplazumab, anti-CD147 antibody||Tang-Du Hospital|
|69||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Phase III completed on Jan 2021||TY027, monoclonal antibody targeting SARS-CoV-2||Tychan / SingHealth Investigational Medicine Unit|
|70||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Phase II study not yet recruiting||Opdivo (nivolumab), PD-1 blocking antibody||University of Hong Kong (BMS)|
|71||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Phase III trials began Oct 2020 (ITAC Trial)||Prolastin, alpha-1 anti-trypsin antibody||Various global research sponsors / Grifols / Emergent BioSolutions, CSL Behring and Takeda|
|72||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||VIR-7832 will be evaluated in the Phase 1b/2a National Health Service-supported AGILE trial in adults with mild to moderate COVID-19||VIR-7832 antibodies from recovered SARS patients||Vir Biotechnology / GSK / Samsung / WuXi Biologics / Biogen|
|73||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||Phase II trials FDA to begin Oct 2020; NCT04401475||Single domain antibodies (sdAbs), engineered monoclonal antibody derived from camelids||Abcore|
|74||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||-||Antibodies||Ablexis / AlivaMab Discovery Services / Berkeley Lights Collaborate|
|75||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||-||Antibody for immunocompromised patients||Alliance - Proteona / NMI / NUS Enterprise / 10X Genomics / NovogeneAIT / Twist Bioscience / University Hospitals / German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg University Hospital / Tübingen University Hospital / NovogeneAIT|
|76||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||-||Antibodies from recovered COVID-19 patients||Amgen / Adaptive Biotechnologies|
|77||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||Phase I/II trials begin in summer 2020||Antibodies targeting the S protein from convalescent serum, humanized mice, and phage display||AstraZeneca / US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) / University of Maryland School of Medicine|
|78||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||Phase I/II trials to begin in Oct 2020||-||Atreca / BeiGene / IGM Biosciences / Singlomics|
|79||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Phase II/III clinical trial begin in Jan 2021||Super-antibody or antibody cocktail to target potential mutations of SARS-CoV-2||Celltrion|
|80||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||-||Antibodies||Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, Imperial College London|
|81||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||Recruiting Dec 2020.||Mix of neutralizing antibodies isolated from recovered COVID-19 patients||Columbia University Irving Medical Center; IAVI and Serum Research Institute India|
|82||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||-||Antibodies from recovered COVID-19 patients||Costa Rican Social Security Fund (CCSS) / The University of Costa Rica (UCR) / Clodomiro Picado Institute|
|83||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||Phase III first patient enrolled, Oct 2020||Polyclonal hyperimmune globulin (H-IG), unbranded (TAK-888)||CoVIg-19 Plasma Alliance (Takeda, CSL Behring, Biotest AG, Bio Products Laboratory, LFB, and Octapharma, ADMA Biologics, BioPharma Plasma, GC Pharma, Sanquin) / Gates Foundation / NIAID / Microsoft|
|84||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||Announced that the first patient has been dosed in its Phase II/III study evaluating the safety and efficacy of SAB-185||SAB-185, Polyclonal hyperimmune globulin (H-IG)||CSL Behring / SAb Biotherapeutics|
|85||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||Phase I/II trials began June 2020; recruitment began Aug 2020||-||CSL Behring Australia|
|86||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||Phase II trials FDA to begin Oct 2020; NCT04401475||Monocloncal antibodies, CXC10 antagonist||Edesa Biotech / Light Chain Bioscience (NovImmune)|
|87||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||-||Neutralizing antibodies||Eli Lilly / Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute|
|88||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||NIAID has initiated a Phase III clinical trial to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of Emergent’s COVID-19 Human Immune Globulin (COVID-HIG) in oct 2020||Horse plasma product (COVID-EIG)||Emergent BioSolutions|
|89||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||-||Polyclonal hyperimmune globulin (H-IG)||Emergent BioSolutions / National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) / Mt Sinai Health System / ImmunoTek Bio Centers|
|90||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||Expected to begin Phase I/II trials in early 2021||Polyclonal antibodies||Fab'entech|
|91||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||-||Antibodies||FairJourney Biologics / Iontas|
|92||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||-||GC5131A, plasma derived therapy||GC Pharma / Korea National Institute of Health|
|93||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||-||Non-viral gene therapy to produce monoclonal antibodies||Generation Bio / Vir Biotechnology|
|94||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||Phase I trial expected to start early 2021||rCIG (recombinant anti-coronavirus 19 hyperimmune gammaglobulin), polyclonal antibodies||GigaGen|
|95||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Anti-SARS-CoV-2 hyperimmune globulin begins clinical trial in patients with COVID-19 began Oct 2020||Polyclonal hyperimmune globulin (H-IG)||Grifols|
|96||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||-||Antibodies from recovered COVID-19 patients||Grifols|
|97||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||Trial to begin Feb 2021 in Spain||Gamunex-C, containis anti-SARS-CoV-2 polyclonal antibodies from recovered plasma donors||Grifols|
|98||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Phase I clinical trial initiated Dec 2020 and estimated completion on Aug 2021.||Antibody 47D11||Harbour BioMed / Erasmus MC / Utrecht University / Mount Sinai Health System / AbbVie|
|99||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||-||IgY-110, anti-CoV-2 antibody (nasal spary application)||IGY Life Sciences / MMS Holdings / Canadian Government National Microbiology Lab|
|100||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||-||Novel biosynthetic convalescent plasma (BCP)||Immunome|
|101||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||-||Antibodies from recovered COVID-19 patients||Innovent Biologics|
|102||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||-||Antibodies (OmniChicken platform)||Ligand Pharmaceuticals|
|103||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||-||Antibodies (OmniRat platform)||Ligand Pharmaceuticals|
|104||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||-||Antibodies||Medicago / Laval University's Infectious Disease Research Centre|
|105||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||Phase I trial could begin as early as Sept 2020||Antibodies||Prellis Biologics|
|106||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||-||Purified ovine immunoglobulin from immunized sheep||Public Health England (Stuart Dowall)|
|107||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||-||Nanobodies from Llamas||Rosalind Franklin Institute / Oxford University / Diamond Light Source / Public Health England|
|108||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||Start Phase II trial Q3 2020; FDA cleared for Phase I for COVI-GUARD (STI-1499) in hospitalized COVID-19 patients||COVI-SHIELD / COVI-TRACE / COVI-GUARD antibody cocktail that binds to three different epitopes||Sorrento Therapeutics / Mount Sinai Health System / Columbia University|
|109||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||Plan to initiate Phase I in Q1 2021||TZLS-501, an anti-interleukin-6 receptor monoclonal antibody (inhalation technology in development-Foralumab anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody)||Tiziana Life Sciences|
|110||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Enrolling Phase III trial in April 2021||BRII-196 and BRII-198, Antibodies from recovered COVID-19 patients||Tsinghua University / Third People's Hospital of Shenzhen / Brii Biosciences|
|111||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||-||Linked nanobody antibody||University of Texas at Austin / US National Institutes of Health / Ghent University|
|112||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Phase III trial is assessing the safety and efficacy of AZD7442 as 16 march 2021||Combo of two antibodies (AZD7442)||Vanderbilt Vaccine Center / AstraZeneca / IDBiologics|
|113||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||-||Neutralizing antibodies||Virna Therapeutics / University of Toronto|
|114||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||-||Antibodies from recovered COVID-19 patients||Xbiotech / BioBridge Global|
|115||Treatment||Antivirals||Clinical||Phase II/III to start in Q3 2020||-||Acer Therapeutics / US National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS)|
|116||Treatment||Antivirals||Clinical||Phase II/III started enrolling in May 2020||-||Ansun Biopharma / Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University|
|117||Treatment||Antivirals||Clinical||Small open label trial completed and results released in March 2020; Larger open label trial recruiting May 2020||Ganovo (danoprevir), hepatitis C virus NS3 protease inhibitor; ritonavir; interferon, approved in China to treat Hepatitis C||Ascletis / Chinese research sponsors|
|118||Treatment||Antivirals||Clinical||Phase III trial recruiting May 2020||ASC09, HIV protease inhibitor||Ascletis / Chinese research sponsors|
|119||Treatment||Antivirals||Clinical||AT-527 is currently being evaluated in a global Phase 3 study in apr 2021||AT-527, oral purine nucleotide prodrug||Atea Pharmaceuticals / Roche|
|120||Treatment||Antivirals||Clinical||Phase II recruiting May 2020; Individual patient expanded access||Virazole (ribavirin for inhalation solution)||Bausch Health|
|121||Treatment||Antivirals||Clinical||Phase II trial started August 2020||-||-|
|122||Treatment||Antivirals||Clinical||Phase Ib recruiting May 2020||galidesivir||BioCryst Pharmaceuticals|
|123||Treatment||Antivirals||Clinical||Phase II trial not yet recruiting||Levovir (clevudine)||Bukwang Pharm|
|124||Treatment||Antivirals||Clinical||Phase III Clinical Trial of Anti-influenza Drug Avigan Tablet in Japan, Targeting COVID-19 Patients started in april 2021||Favilavir / Favipiravir / T-705 / Avigan, licensed in Japan to treat influenza||Fujifilm Toyama Chemical / Zhejiang Hisun Pharmaceuticals / numerous trials with global research sponsors / Brigham and Women's Hospital, Massachusetts General Hospital, and the University of Massachusetts Medical School / Glenmark Pharmaceuticals|
|125||Treatment||Antivirals||Clinical||Gilead releases additional data Phase III trial on July 10, 2020||remdesivir, nucleotide analog||Gilead; World Health Organization SOLIDARITY trial; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)'s Adaptive COVID-19 Treatment Trial; Feinstein Institutes; I-SPY COVID|
|126||Treatment||Antivirals||Clinical||-||Kaletra / Aluvia (lopinavir / ritonavir), HIV-1 protease inhibitor||Global hospital testing (AbbVie); World Health Organization SOLIDARITY trial (studying lopinavir / ritonavir with and without interferon beta); University of Oxford RECOVERY trial; REMAP-CAP global trial; Univ. of College, London|
|127||Treatment||Antivirals||Clinical||Phase II trial recruiting July 2020||Selzentry (maraviroc), a CCR5 co-receptor antagonist||Hospital Universitario Infanta Leonor / Viiv Healthcare; Hospital General de México Dr. Eduardo Liceaga; Rhode Island Hospital|
|128||Treatment||Antivirals||Clinical||Phase II/III trial not yet recruiting July 2020||Sofusbuvir||Hospital do Coracao|
|129||Treatment||Antivirals||Clinical||Phase III trials recruiting May 2020||Prezcobix (darunavir, HIV-1 protease inhibitor / cobicistat, CYP3A inhibitor)||-|
|130||Treatment||Antivirals||Clinical||Phase II/III trial recruiting July 2020 (neurosivir); Phase I trial recruiting July 2020 (inhaled remdesevir + neurosivir)||Neurosivir (NA-831)||NeuroActiva|
|131||Treatment||Antivirals||Clinical||-||Tamiflu (oseltamivir), neuraminidase inhibitor||Roche; REMAP-CAP global trial|
|132||Treatment||Antivirals||Clinical||Phase II trial (Nitazoxanide + atazanavir/ritonavir) began Oct 2020||Atazanavir, protease inhibitor||Various global research sponsors / University of Liverpool / Obafemi Awolowo University|
|133||Treatment||Antivirals||Clinical||-||Daklinza (daclatasvir), hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A inhibitor||Various global research sponsors|
|135||Treatment||Antivirals||Pre-clinical||-||GC376, protease inhibitor||Anivive Lifesciences|
|136||Treatment||Antivirals||Pre-clinical||-||antiviral Fc conjugates||Cidara Therapeutics|
|137||Treatment||Antivirals||Pre-clinical||-||Antiviral compounds||Cocrystal Pharma|
|138||Treatment||Antivirals||Pre-clinical||-||ISR-50||ISR Immune System Regulation|
|139||Treatment||Antivirals||Pre-clinical||Phase III adaptive trial (ITAC) began Oct 2020; Phase III recruitment began Oct 2020||Hyperimmune immunoglobulin (hIVIG) + Remdesivir||National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID) / University of Minnesota|
|140||Treatment||Antivirals||Pre-clinical||-||Antiviral drug combinations||SCORE consortium (universities of Aix-Marseille, Leuven, Utrecht, Bern, and Lubeck), the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, and Janssen Pharmaceutica NV|
|141||Treatment||Antivirals||Pre-clinical||-||Prophylactic antiviral CRISPR in human cells (PAC-MAN)||Stanford University / US Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory|
|142||Treatment||Antivirals||Pre-clinical||-||Vicromax, broad spectrum antiviral||ViralClear Pharmaceuticals|
|143||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Clinical||FDA cleared Phase I trial June 2020; First patient dosed Nov 2020||AgenT-797, allogeneic invariant natural killer T cells||AgenTus Therapeutics (Agenus)|
|144||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Clinical||Phase I/II trial FDA cleared June 2020||ACT-20, allogeneic cell preparation of mesenchymal stem cells from umbilical cord tissue||Aspire Health Science|
|145||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Clinical||Phase II/III trial recruiting May 2020||MultiStem, bone marrow stem cells||Athersys / The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston|
|146||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Clinical||Phase II trial expected to start Q3 2020; Phase I open label trial began Oct 2020||CLBS119, autologous peripheral blood-derived CD34+ cell therapy||Caladrius Biosciences|
|147||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Clinical||Expanded access protocol trial ongoing May 2020; FDA approved IND in August 2020 for Phase II trial||CAP-1002, allogenic cardiosphere-derived cells||Capricor Inc.|
|148||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Clinical||Two case reports released July 2020; FDA cleared Phase I trial July 2020||CK0802, allogeneic cell therapy containing T-regulatory cells from umbilical cord blood processed to express lung homing markers on the cell surface||Cellenkos|
|149||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Clinical||FDA approves Phase II trial June 2020||Autologous Adipose-Tissue Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (ADMSCs) and allogeneic MSCs||Celltex|
|150||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Clinical||Phase I/II study recruiting August 2020; Dosing began for Phase I/II Phase; I/II evaluation complete Dec 2020.||CYNK-001, allogeneic, natural killer cell therapy||Celularity / Lung Biotechnology PBC / California Institute for Regnerative Medicine (CIRM)|
|151||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Clinical||Phase II to start in July 2020 in Australia||CYP-001 (Cymerus MSC), Mesenchymal stem cells||Cynata Therapeutics|
|152||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Clinical||Phase I trial started July 2020||DWP710, DW-MSC, a mesenchymal stem cell therapy||Daewoong|
|153||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Clinical||Phase II trial started May 2020; First patient dosed in phase II trials in Israel||Allocetra, early apopototic cells||Enlivex Therapeutics|
|154||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Clinical||Phase II started in April 2020, Phase I efficacy trial began Aug 2020||Allogenic, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HB-adMSCs)||Hope Biosciences / Daewoong Pharmaceutical Co. LTD / Other global research sponsors|
|155||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Clinical||Phase I enrolling April 2020||AmnioBoost, concentrated allogeneic MSCs and cytokines derived from amniotic fluid||Lattice Biologics|
|156||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Clinical||Phase I/IIa trial approved by South Korea Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in March 2020; Phase I/II efficacy trial to start Dec 2020||Astrostem-V, Allogenic, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HB-adMSCs)||Naturecell Co. LTD|
|157||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Clinical||Phase I trials ongoing May 2020; Phase I/II trials recruiting May 2020; Phase II/III trial recruiting May 2020; Phase 2 trial enrollment Sept 2020-EXIT COVID-19||Mesenchymal stem cells||Numerous trials with global research sponsors / MD Anderson Cancer Center|
|158||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Clinical||Phase II trial recruiting July 2020; Results from individual patient expanded access released in April/May 2020; Phase II trials began Nov 2020. PLI study terminated Dec 2020.||PLX cell product, placenta-based cell therapy||Pluristem Therapeutics / BIH Center for Regenerative Therapy / Berlin Center for Advanced Therapies|
|159||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Clinical||Phase I/II trial recruiting July 2020||MSV_allo, allogenic mesenchymal stem cells||Red de Terapia Celular (TerCel)|
|160||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Clinical||-||StemVacs, universal donor natural killer cell-based therapy||Therapeutic Solutions International|
|161||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Clinical||-||Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells||Trustem Cell Therapy|
|162||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Clinical||Individual expanded access results released July 2020; IND submitted to FDA April 2020||AlloRx stem cells, umbilical cord mesenchyma stem cell therapy||Vitro Biopharma / Global Institute of Stem Cell Therapy and Research|
|163||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Pre-clinical||-||IMS001, human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hES-MSC)||AgeX Therapeutics / ImStem Biotechnology|
|164||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Pre-clinical||FDA IND approved Sept 2020; Dosing began Nov 2020||Allogeneic T-cell therapies||AlloVir / Baylor College of Medicine|
|165||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Pre-clinical||FDA cleared Investigational New Drug (IND) application for BX-U001||BX-U001, allogeneic umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cell (hUC-MSC)||Baylx, Inc.|
|166||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Pre-clinical||-||BCDA-4, bone marrow-derived allogenic neurokinin-1 receptor positive mesenchymal stem cells||BioCardia|
|167||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Pre-clinical||Phase I/II trials began April 2020||Dental pulp-derived mesenchymal stem cells||CAR-T (Shanghai) Biotechnology|
|168||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Pre-clinical||Phase I trial to start by end of 2020||NoveCite cells (NC-MSCs), mesenchymal stem cells derived from a single donor's fibroblasts||Citius / Novellus|
|169||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Pre-clinical||Phase I/II open label trials began in July 2020||Chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) / T cell receptors (TCR)-T cell therapy||Duke-NUS Medical School; various hospitals (Singapore)|
|170||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Pre-clinical||Begin Phase I by end of 2020||Natural killer cell-based therapy||GC LabCell / KLEO Pharmaceuticals|
|171||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Pre-clinical||Pre-IND submitted to FDA in May 2020||haNK, natural killer cells||ImmunityBio / NantKwest|
|172||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Pre-clinical||Phase Ib trial to start June 2020||Bone marrow-derived allogenic mesenchymal stem cells (BM-Allo-MSC)||ImmunityBio / NantKwest / Be The Match BioTherapies|
|173||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Pre-clinical||-||Furestem RA, allogenic umbilical cord blood-derived stem cell therapy||Kangstem Biotech|
|174||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Pre-clinical||-||Autologous Adipose-Tissue Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (ADMSCs)||Regeneris Medical|
|175||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Pre-clinical||Phase I/II trial to start August 2020 Phase I/II now recruiting Nov 2020.||SBI-101, biologic / device combo product with allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells and a phasmapheresis device||Sentien Biotechnologies|
|176||Treatment||Cell-based therapies||Pre-clinical||-||Small mobile stem (SMS) cells||SMSbiotech|
|177||Treatment||RNA-based treatments||Clinical||Phase II study IND submitted to FDA on April 27, 2020; Phase II trials approved in Peru Nov 2020||OT-101, a TGF-Beta antisense drug candidate||Mateon Therapeutics|
|178||Treatment||RNA-based treatments||Pre-clinical||Announces Positive Safety Data in First Cohort of Phase 1 Clinical Study Investigating Intranasal Administration of Ampligen as a Potential Prophylaxis or Treatment for COVID-19||Ampligen; (rintatolimod)||AIM ImmunoTech / National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Japan / Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center|
|179||Treatment||RNA-based treatments||Pre-clinical||Phase I to start Q4 2020||Inhaled mRNA||Neurimmune / Ethris|
|180||Treatment||RNA-based treatments||Pre-clinical||-||Antisense oligonucleotides, peptide conjugated||Sarepta Therapeutics / US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID)|
|181||Treatment||RNA-based treatments||Pre-clinical||-||RNAi - testing 150 RNAis||Sirnaomics|
|182||Treatment||RNA-based treatments||Pre-clinical||Phase I to start by the end of 2020||VIR-2703 (ALN-COV) siRNA candidate||Vir Biotech / Alnylam Pharmaceuticals|
|183||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Announced on august 3 2020 that I-SPY COVID ,a phase II, open label, adaptive platform trial will evaluate the impact of Firazyr on inflammatory response in COVID-19 patients||Firazyr (icatibant), bradykinin B2 antagonist||I-SPY COVID Trial (Takeda)|
|184||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II enrolling July 2020||MRx-4DP0004, strain of Bifidobacterium breve isolated from the gut microbiome of a healthy human||4D Pharma|
|185||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II trial ongoing July 2020; Phase II trials recruitment begin Oct 2020||senicapoc||Aarhus University|
|186||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase IIb/III trial started July 2020, top line results expected in 2020||ABX464||Abivax|
|187||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II trial began recruitment July 2020 Patient enrollment began Dec 2020.||Zilucoplan, a synthetic macrocyclic peptide inhibitor of the terminal complement protein C5||ACCORD trial; University Hospital, Ghent / UCB Pharma|
|188||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II trial started July 2020||LAM-002A (apilimod dimesylate), PIKfyve kinase inhibitor||AI Therapeutics / Yale University|
|189||Treatment||Other||Clinical||IND submission to FDA in June 2020; FDA approval to begin Phase II trials in Sept 2020||ADX-1612, HSP 90 inhibitor||Aldeyra Therapeutics|
|190||Treatment||Other||Clinical||IND submission to FDA in June 2020; FDA approval to begin Phase II trials in Sept 2020; Phase II trials to begin 4th qtr 2020; Phase II began Dec 2020.||ADX-629, orally available reactive aldehyde species (RASP) inhibitor||Aldeyra Therapeutics|
|191||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Ifenprodil reduced IL-6 in Phase IIb/3 trial, May 2021||Cerocal (ifenprodil), NP-120, an NDMA receptor glutamate receptor antagonist targeting Glu2NB||Algernon Pharmaceuticals|
|192||Treatment||Other||Clinical||-||Vascepa (icosapent ethyl), a form of eicosapentaenoic acid||Amarin Corp|
|193||Treatment||Other||Clinical||I-SPY COVID-19 TRIAL: An Adaptive Platform Trial for Critically Ill Patients (I-SPY_COVID) starts July 2020. Enrolling patients August 2020. First patients enrolled Dec 2020.||Otezla (apremilast), inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4)||Amgen; I-SPY COVID trial / Takeda / AbbieVie|
|194||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II trials ongoing July 2020; Individual expanded access in Austria April 2020||solnatide (synthetic molecule with a structure based on the lectin-like domain of human Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha)||Apeptico / Medical University Vienna|
|195||Treatment||Other||Clinical||-||dutasteride, anti-androgen||Applied Biology / Brown University / Corpometria Institute|
|196||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II recruiting July 2020; Individual patient expanded access||AT-001, aldose reductase inhibitor||Applied Therapeutics / numerous New York City hospitals|
|197||Treatment||Other||Clinical||FDA and Health Canada approved Phase II trial start in July 2020; Phase II trials approved to begin patient enrollment in Turkey Oct 2020; first patient dosed for Phase II trials in Turkey and US (Louisiana)||Metablok (LSALT peptide), selective dipeptidase-1 antagonist||Arch Biopartners|
|198||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Trial starts April 2020||ARMS-1||ARMS Pharmaceutical / UH Cleveland Medical Center / Case Western Reserve University|
|199||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Case series results released June 2020; ACCORD Phase II trial to start May 2020; Phase 2 trial (fostamatinib) starts Sept 2020||Calquence (acalabrutinib), Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor||AstraZeneca; ACCORD study / Rigel Pharmaceuticals|
|200||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II study started in June 2020; Phase 2 enrollment completed Oct 2020||ATYR1923, fusion protein (immuno-modulatory domain of histidyl tRNA synthetase fused to the Fc region of a human antibody) modulator of neuropilin-2||aTyr|
|201||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Currently in a broad phase II clinical development programme , April 2021||bemcentinib, selective AXL kinase inhibitor||BerGenBio; ACCORD study|
|202||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II trial recruiting; Individual patient expanded access||Activase (alteplase), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)||Beth Israel Deaconess, the University of Colorado Anschultz Medical Campus, and Denver Health (Genentech); University College London; Boehringer Ingelheim|
|203||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II trial has recruited one third of enrollees/Trial expanded to EU Dec 2020.||recombinant human plasma gelsolin (rhu-pGSN)||BioAegis Therapeutics Inc.|
|204||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II/III recruiting July 2020||vazegepant, CGRP receptor antagonist||Biohaven / Thomas Jefferson University|
|205||Treatment||Other||Clinical||-||BIO-11006, inhaled peptide||Biomarck Pharmaceuticals|
|206||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Enrollment completed for Phase II trials||BLD-2660, synthetic small molecule inhibitor of calpain (CAPN) 1, 2, and 9||Blade Therapeutics|
|207||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II trial recruiting July 2020||Auxora (CM4620-IE), calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC) channel inhibitor||CalciMedica|
|208||Treatment||Other||Clinical||IND approved Sept 2020||piclidenoson, A3 adenosine receptor agonist||Can-Fite BioPharma|
|209||Treatment||Other||Clinical||-||Entresto (sacubitril, a neprilysin inhibitor, and valsartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker)||Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital|
|210||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II/III trial recruiting July 2020||-||-|
|211||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase III trial recruiting July 2020, results expected by the end of 2020||pacritinib, oral kinase inhibitor with specificity for JAK2, IRAK1 and CSFIR||CTI Biopharma|
|212||Treatment||Other||Clinical||-||roscovitine seliciclib, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2 / 9 inhibitor||Cyclacel Pharmaceuticals / University of Edinburgh|
|213||Treatment||Other||Clinical||-||fadraciclib (CYC065), cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2 / 9 inhibitor||Cyclacel Pharmaceuticals / University of Edinburgh|
|214||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Safety/efficacy trials began in Italy Oct 2020||raloxifene (Evista), an estrogen agonist / antagonist||Dompe farmaceutici (as part of Exscalate4CoV)|
|215||Treatment||Other||Clinical||-||Ryanodex (dantrolene sodium), skeletal muscle relaxant||Eagle Pharmaceuticals / Amneal Pharmaceuticals / Alcami Corporation / Hackensack University Medical Center|
|216||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase III trial began in May 2021||Peginterferon lambda||Eiger BioPharmaceuticals, Inc. / Johns Hopkins University|
|217||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Added to REMAP-COVID trial in June 2020; First patient enrolled in Aug 2020||Eritoran, TLR-4 antagonist||Eisai|
|218||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Part of Phase II/III Phase TACTIC-E trial and interim data expected 4Q 2020; Phase II US trial to start August 2020||EDP1815, oral single strain of microbe||Evelo Biosciences / Rutgers University / Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital / TACTIC-E trial (Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust)|
|219||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II and Phase III trials recruiting July 2020||Gleevac (imatinib), kinase inhibitor||Exvastat Ltd / Global sponsors|
|220||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Results from various trials released June 2020; REMAP-CAP trial recruiting May 2020||Traumakine (interferon beta 1-a)||Faron Pharmaceuticals / REMAP-CAP global trial / WHO SOLIDARITY trial / various global researchers|
|221||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II study underway in April 2020; Phase II trials recruiting Nov 2020||Pepcid (famotidine), histamine-2 (H2) receptor antagonist||Feinstein Institutes for Medical Research at Northwell Health / Alchem|
|222||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase I topline results released June 2020; IND submitted to FDA Aug 2020||FSD-201 (ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide)||FSD Pharma|
|223||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase III trial to begin June 2020; Enrollment began for Phase III trials, Phase III trial discontinued March 2020||losmapimod, oral selective p38 mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitor||Fulcrum Therapeutics|
|224||Treatment||Other||Clinical||-||MSTT1041A (anti-ST2, the receptor for IL-33)||Genentech|
|226||Treatment||Other||Clinical||-||CIGB-258, immunoregulatory peptide, Jusvinza||Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Center (CIGB), Cuba|
|227||Treatment||Other||Clinical||-||TD139, specific inhibitor of galectin-3, inhalation powder||Global research sponsors|
|228||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II trial recruiting July 2020||Cinvanti (aprepitant), a substance P / neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist||Heron Therapeutics|
|229||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Second trial to start in August 2020; Dosing began Phase II platform/I-SPY trial Sept 2020; Phase II/RESCUE Trial Sept 2020; Phase II Discontinued March 2021||Razuprotafib, Tie 2 activating compound (AKB-9778)||I-SPY COVID Trial (Aerpio Pharmaceuticals), - RESCUE Trial various academic researchers / Medical Technology Enterprise Consortium (MTEC)|
|230||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Clinical trials to start in Aug 2020; ACTIV-1 1M Phase III trials began Oct 2020||Cenicriviroc, chemokine receptor 2 and 5 dual antagonist||I-SPY COVID Trial (Allergan); National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS) Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA)|
|231||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II trial started June 2020, top line results expected in 2020, Recruiting Aug 2020 (IMU 838 +Oseltamivir); ; Phase II enrollment began Oct 2020||IMU-838, selective oral dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) inhibitor||Immunic, Inc. / University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust|
|232||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase Ib trial to start June 2020||N-803, IL-15 "superagonist" (Nogapendekin alfa inbakicept)||ImmunityBio / NantKwest|
|233||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II trial cleared by FDA, French and Belgian authorities July 2020; First patient dosed Oct 2020 (COVITREM- 1)||Nangibotide||Inotrem|
|234||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase III trial recruiting July 2020||brensocatib, oral, reversible inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase 1 (DPP1)||Insmed Inc.|
|235||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase III trial recruiting May 2020||Rebif (interferon beta-1a)||Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (Merck KGaA); IRCCS San Raffaele; WHO global SOLIDARITY Trial|
|236||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II trial ongoing July 2020||Xpovio (selinexor), oral, selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) compound||Karyopharm Therapeutics|
|237||Treatment||Other||Clinical||-||EPAspire, oral formulation of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid free fatty acid (EPA-FFA) in gastro-resistant capsules||KD Pharma / SLA Pharma|
|238||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase IV trial recruiting in July 2020||Flarin (lipid ibuprofen)||King's College London|
|239||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Massachusetts General Hospital Phase II trial ongoing July 2020; other Phase II trials recruiting July 2020||Nitric oxide||Massachusetts General Hospital; University of British Columbia; Sanotize Research and Development|
|240||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II trial FDA approved and not yet recruiting July 2020||MN-166 (ibudilast), orally bioavailable, small molecule macrophase migration inhibitory factor (MIF) inhibitor and phosphodiesterase (PDE) -4 and -10 inhibitor||-|
|241||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II to start in August 2020; Phase II began Oct 2020||ivermectin||MedinCell / University of Utah / Surgisphere Corp; University of Baghdad; Tanta University; other global research sponsors|
|242||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Gates Foundation trial results expected by end of summer 2020; Phase III trials began Oct 2020 in Canada||-||-|
|243||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Veterans observational study ongoing July 2020; Phase IV trials recruiting July 2020||Diovan (valsartan), angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB)||-|
|244||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase I/II, Phase II, and Phase III trials recruiting in May 2020; Phase II (CAMELOT Trial) enrollment began Nov 2020||camostat mesylate, transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) inhibitor, approved in Japan to treat multiple conditions including pancreatitis||Multiple global research sponsors, including UK SPIKE-1 trial|
|245||Treatment||Other||Clinical||University of Tokyo trial (IV formulation) starts April 2020; Ensysce trial will be with oral formulation||nafamostat, approved in Japan to treat pancreatitis and other diseases||Multiple global research sponsors, including University of Tokyo / National Center for Global Health and Medicine / Ensysce Biosciences / Institut Pasteur Korea / Daiichi Sankyo (inhalation formulation) / University of Edinburgh|
|246||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II/III/IV trials began June 2020; Sept 2020||-||Multiple global research sponsors; ACCORD Trial|
|247||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Eli Lilly Phase III trial started June 2020; NIAID trial remdesivir + baricitinib recruiting May 2020, Received Emergency Use Authorization from the FDA in Nov 2020||Olumiant (baricitinib), Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor||National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID)'s Adaptive COVID-19 Treatment Trial; Nova Scotia Health Authority; Hospital of Prato; University of Colorado (Eli Lilly); TACTIC-R trial|
|248||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase I trial cleared by FDA July 2020; Second study for NT-I7 approved by FDA. Patient dosing began 2020.||NT-I7 (efineptakin alfa), long-acting human IL-7||NeoImmune Tech / NIAID / University of Nebraska Medical Center|
|249||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase III trials for ACTIV-4 Antithrombotics launched Sept 2020; Recruitment began for Phase III trial Nov 2020||Apixaban (Eliquis) blood thinner, direct oral anticoagulant||NIH ACTIV-4 Antithrombotics / nonprofit organizations / numerous biopharmaceutical companies|
|250||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Novartis/Incyte Phase III trial started April 2020; Expanded access protocols||Jakafi / jakavi (ruxolitinib)||Novartis / Incyte, numerous researchers globally|
|251||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase I/II to start in Q4 2020; Phase I IV trials expected 1st QTR 2021||ST266, cell-free biologic made from anti-inflammatory proteins secreted by placental cells||Noveome Biotherapeutics / Singota Solutions|
|252||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase III trial recruiting May 2020||Recombinant human interferon alpha-1b||Numerous global sponsors|
|253||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Open-label Greek study results published June 2020||colchicine||Numerous research sponsors globally|
|254||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II recruiting July 2020; Individual patient expanded access||dipyridamole (Persantine), anticoagulant||Numerous research sponsors globally|
|255||Treatment||Other||Clinical||WHO discontinues hydroxychloquine arm in the SOLIDARITY trial July 2020; FDA revoked the March 28, 2020 Emergency Use Authorization on June 15, 2020; RECOVERY trial prelim results released June 2020, trial arm stopped||Chloroquine / Hydroxychloroquine, antimalarial||Numerous trials with global research sponsors including World Health Organization SOLIDARITY trial; ORCHID trial with National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI); REMAP-CAP global trial; Novartis; PRINCIPLE trial|
|256||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Announces Top-line Safety and Efficacy Data from a Phase III Placebo Controlled COVID-19 Study Using Inhaled Corticosteroid (ciclesonide) in April 2021||Methylprednisolone / ciclesonide (Alvesco) / hydrocortisone / corticosteroids||Numerous trials with research sponsors globally; University of Oxford RECOVERY trial; REMAP-CAP global trial; Covis Pharma B.V.|
|257||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II trial currently recruiting patients||VentaProst, inhaled epoprostenol delivered via a dedicated delivery system||Ohio State University|
|258||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase III trial progress report released in June 2020||CD24Fc, biological immunomodulator (nonpolymorphic regions of CD24 attached to the Fc region of human IgG1)||OncoImmune|
|259||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase I/II trial cleared by FDA in May 2020; Individual expanded access results released May 2020||Organicell Flow, acellular product derived from amniotic fluid||Organicell Regenerative Medicine|
|260||Treatment||Other||Clinical||FDA agreed to Phase II June 2020; patient enrollment began Sept 2020||OP-101, dendrimer-based therapy||Orpheris (Ashvattha Therapeutics)|
|261||Treatment||Other||Clinical||-||PP-001||Panoptes Pharma GmbH|
|262||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Enrolled in the SCOPE clinical trial, a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase 2 study in april 2021||Leukine (sargramostim, rhu-Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor )||Partner Therapeutics / Singapore General Hospital / University Hospital, Ghent|
|263||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Pfizer and other Phase II trial not yet recruiting July 2020||Xeljanz (tofacitinib), Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor||Pfizer; other global research sponsors|
|264||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase I trial recruiting July 2020; Trials in Korea to start 3Q 2020||Aplidin (plitidepsin), approved in Australia to treat multiple myeloma||PharmaMar / Boryung Pharmaceutical / Hospitals in Spain|
|265||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II trial not yet recruiting July 2020; compassionate use; 2nd Phase II open label trial to start Sept 2020. First patient enrolled Dec 2020.||Ruconest (recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor)||Pharming|
|266||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II trial started July 2020 and results in Q4 2020. Clinical trial terminated Dec 2020.||PB1046, long-acting, sustained release human vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) analogue||PhaseBio|
|267||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II/III trial initiated in Australia November 2020||PTC299, oral small molecule inhibitor of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH)||PTC Therapeutics|
|268||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II trials recruiting July 2020||PUL-042 inhalation solution||Pulmotect|
|269||Treatment||Other||Clinical||-||azithromycin, antibiotic||RECOVERY trial and multiple global research sponsors|
|270||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II/III trials in Russia and UK to start in July 2020; Phase IIa in US ongoing in July 2020; Preliminary data from individual patient expanded access released in April 2020; ; Phase II/III approved for trials in Mexico, UK, Italy, and Russia||-||-|
|271||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II/III trials begin 4th qtr 2020||RHB-107 (upamostat, WX-671), serine protease inhibitor||-|
|272||Treatment||Other||Clinical||-||Levaquin (levofloxacin), a fluoroquinolone antibacterial||REMAP-CAP trial|
|273||Treatment||Other||Clinical||-||ceftriaxone, broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic||REMAP-CAP trial|
|274||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase 3 clinical candidate with safety data in more than 4,000 subjects. Resverlogix has announced plans for an open-label study to assess the safety and efficacy of apabetalone in the treatment of COVID-19.||apabetalone (RVX-208), selective BET (bromodomain and extra-terminal) inhibitor||Resverlogix|
|275||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase III clinical trial of investigational new drug candidate NT-300 (nitazoxanide extended-release tablets, 300 mg) versus placebo as a treatment for mild or moderate COVID-19.||nitazoxanide, antiprotozoal||Romark Laboratories; various researchers globally|
|276||Treatment||Other||Clinical||-||-||SciTech Development, LLC|
|277||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II trial started June 2020, results expected by October||AQCH, plant-derived (phytopharmaeutical) drug||Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd|
|278||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase III RCT in hospitalised COVID-19 patients, named SG018.||SNG001, inhaled formulation of interferon beta-1a||Synairgen / University of Southampton|
|279||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Danish Medicines Agency approved a Phase I trial July 2020 (UN9011, Union Therapeutics); Daewoong to apply for Phase I trial in Korea in July 2020; FDA cleared to begin clinical trials in Aug 2020; Dosing completed in Aug 2020||UNI9011 (Union Therapeutics), FW-1022 (First Wave Bio), DWRX2003 (Daewoong) niclosamide||Union Therapeutics / Institute Pasteur Korea / Daewoong Therapeutics; First Wave Bio / ANA Therapeutics|
|280||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II recruiting July 2020||Lysteda / Cyklokapron / LB1148 (tranexamic acid), an antifibrinolytic||University of Alabama at Birmingham; Leading Biosciences|
|281||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II trial recruiting July 2020. Patient enrollment complete Dec 2020.||APN01; recombinant soluble human Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2||University of British Columbia / Apeiron Biologics|
|282||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II Univ. of Hawaii trial started June 2020||Micardis (telmisartan)||University of Hawaii (Boehringer Ingelheim); other global research sponsors|
|283||Treatment||Other||Clinical||-||tradipitant, a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist||Vanda Pharmaceuticals / Feinstein Institutes for Medical Research at Northwell Health|
|284||Treatment||Other||Clinical||-||Aldactone (spironolactone), aldosterone antagonist||Various global research sponsors|
|285||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Observational trial completed April in France;, Phase III trial recruiting Sept 2020 in France||almitrine||Various researchers globally, including University of Oxford|
|286||Treatment||Other||Clinical||FDA IND application accepted for Phase Ia/II open label safety trials began in summer 2020; First patient dosed for Phase I trial Sept 2020 (Brequinar); Phase II recruitment began Nov 2020 (CRISIS 2)||leflunomide, pyrimidine synthesis inhibitor; Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitor (DHODH- Brequinar)||Various researchers worldwide, including Ashford and St Peters Hospital NHS Trust / Guangdong Uni-Innovation Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd. / Clear Creek Bio, LLC / BMS|
|287||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase III trials recruiting June 2020||Pulmozyme (nebulised dornase alfa), a recombinant DNase enzyme||Various researchers worldwide, including University College London / The Francis Crick Institute (COVASE study) / I-SPY COVID trial|
|288||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II dosing began of ATTRACT study in India||VP01, C21, Angiotensin II Type 2 receptor activator||Vicore Pharma|
|289||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II trial recruiting July 2020||Merimepodib, IMPDH inhibitor||ViralClear Pharmaceuticals|
|290||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II trial recruiting May 2020; Phase II trial completed Oct 2020||Luvox (fluvoxamine), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor||Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis / Covid-19 Early Treatment Fund (CETF)|
|291||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase II/III enrolling May 2020. Phase III began Dec 2020.||-||-|
|292||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase IIb trials approved to start in Mexico July 2020||desidustat, a hypoxia inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor||Zydus Cadila / Avant Sante Research Center|
|293||Treatment||Other||Pre-clinical||Phase 2 ACTIV-5 Big Effect Trial (BET-B) began Oct 2020||risankizumab monoclonal antibody & remdesivir + lenzilumab||ACTIV-5 / BET-B for COVID-19 / National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID) / Boehringer Ingelheim / AbbVie|
|296||Treatment||Other||Pre-clinical||Animal study results released July 2020||LEAPS COVID 19 conjugate; Peptides targeting the NP protein||CEL-SCI / University of Georgia Center for Vaccines and Immunology|
|297||Treatment||Other||Pre-clinical||-||DIBI, iron-binding polymer||Chelation Partners|
|298||Treatment||Other||Pre-clinical||Invite only intervention trial Sept 2020||Tricor (fenofibrate), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha agonist||Hebrew University of Jerusalem / University of Pennsylvania / University Arizona|
|299||Treatment||Other||Pre-clinical||-||New drug based on a sugar found in human milk||Lupa Bio, Inc.|
|300||Treatment||Other||Pre-clinical||FDA cleared Phase 2 trial to begin in June 2020; Phase 2 recruitment began Aug 2020||M5049, small molecule that block the activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)7 and TLR8||Merck KGaA|
|301||Treatment||Other||Pre-clinical||-||PCSK9, Peptides||Merck / IRBM / RaPharma|
|302||Treatment||Other||Pre-clinical||-||WP1122, glucose decoy prodrug (and related drug candidates)||Moleculin Biotech / University of Texas Medical Branch / Sterling Pharma USA|
|303||Treatment||Other||Pre-clinical||-||A number of synthesized nanoviricide drug candidates||NanoViricides / TheraCour Pharma Inc.|
|304||Treatment||Other||Pre-clinical||-||Adaptive COVID-19 Treatment Trial 3 (ACTT-3), Remdesivir + interferon beta-1a||National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID)|
|305||Treatment||Other||Pre-clinical||Phase I trial to start July 2020; First patient dosed Sept 2020||Nocions, molecules that either selectively block Nav 1.7 or antagonize large-pore channels||Nocion Therapeutics|
|306||Treatment||Other||Pre-clinical||-||Microbiome therapeutic||Persephone Biosciences|
|307||Treatment||Other||Pre-clinical||-||pH barrier, transepithelial nebulized alkaline treatment||pHbarrier|
|308||Treatment||Other||Pre-clinical||-||Neumifil, multivalent carbohydrate binding molecules||Pneumagen Ltd.|
|309||Treatment||Other||Pre-clinical||-||GP1681, small molecule inhibitor of cytokine release||Quotient Sciences / CytoAgents|
|310||Treatment||Other||Clinical||FDA IIT approved was granted Aug 2020 for use in COVID patients, First patient dosed in Dec 2020.||Silmitasertib, small molecule drug, targets CK2 & CK2-inhibitor||Senhwa Biosciences, Inc|
|311||Treatment||Other||Pre-clinical||-||Coronzot, a novel family of drugs, sequestration of the labile iron||Silkim Pharma|
|312||Treatment||Device||Clinical||FDA issued an Emergency Use Authorization for Impella heart pumps in COVID-19 therapy on May 29, 2020||Impella RP heart pump||Abiomed|
|313||Treatment||Device||Clinical||Phase III (COViNOX Study) Trials began Summer/Fall 2020||Hemolung Respiratory Assist System||ALung Technologies|
|314||Treatment||Device||Clinical||FDA issued an Emergency Use Authorization on April 23, 2020||Oxiris Blood Purification Filter||Baxter|
|315||Treatment||Device||Clinical||Phase III (COViNOX Study) Trials began Summer/Fall 2020||INOpulse||Bellerophon; Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center|
|316||Treatment||Device||Clinical||Phase II trial enrolling July 2020||LungFit (with ultra-high concentrations of nitric oxide)||Beyond Air Ltd|
|317||Treatment||Device||Clinical||Intervention trial started May 2020; Recruitment began Oct 2020||CytoSorb (blood purification device, extracorporeal cytokine adsorber))||CytoSorbents Corporation|
|318||Treatment||Device||Clinical||FDA granted Emergency Use Authorization July 10, 2020||gammaCore Sapphire CV, vagus nerve stimulation device||ElectroCore|
|319||Treatment||Device||Clinical||FDA issued an Emergency Use Authorization on April 17, 2020||Seraph100MicrobindAffinity Blood Filter (Seraphy 100), approved in the EU for pathogen reduction||ExThera Medical|
|320||Treatment||Device||Clinical||FDA issued an Emergency Use Authorization on April 30, 2020||MultiFiltrate PRO System and multiBic / multiPlus Solutions, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT)||Fresenius Medical|
|321||Treatment||Device||Clinical||FDA issued an Emergency Use Authorization on April 9, 2020||Extracorporeal blood purification (EBP) devices, Spectra Optia® Apheresis System combined with D2000 Adsorption Cartridge||Terumo BCT Inc / Marker Therapeutics AG|
|322||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Developer has intiated and begun to enroll participants in proof-of-concept trial with hospitalized COVID patients||abatacept (Orencia)||Bristol Myers Squibb|
|323||Treatment||Other||Clinical||FDA allows two Phase II studies in April 2021||ebselen (SPI-1005)||Sound Pharmaceuticals|
|324||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Announced Phase II trial evaluating BRUKINSA (zanubrutinib)||Zanubrutinib||BeiGene|
|325||Treatment||Antibodies||Pre-clinical||Initiation of an investigator-sponsored trial (IST) by Imperial College London for pneumonia||Fostamatinib||Rigel Pharmaceuticals|
|326||Treatment||Antivirals||Pre-clinical||Pre-Investigational New Drug (IND) development; encouraging early in vitro data||TNX-3500||Tonix Pharmaceuticals|
|327||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Ongoing Phase 2 clinical trial for hospitalized patients in (May 2021)||Tollovir||Todos Medical|
|328||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Phase Ib study results in hospitalized patients in May 2021||Trans Sodium Crocetinate||Diffusion Pharmaceuticals Inc|
|329||Treatment||Other||Clinical||The Phase-III clinical trial (n=220) until March 2021, DCGI Emergency Use permission in May 2021||2-deoxy-D-glucose||DRDO / Dr Reddy’s Lab, India|
|330||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Initiated a Phase Ib/II clinical trial evaluating the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of COR-101 in April 2021||COR-101||CORAT Therapeutics|
|331||Treatment||Antibodies||Clinical||Phase II/III adaptive clinical trial in hospitalized COVID-19 patients||TRV027||Trevena, Inc.|
|332||Treatment||Other||Clinical||Double-blind, placebo controlled, unpowered pilot study to evaluate inhaled ensifentrine||Ensifentrine||Verona Pharma|
Updated: June 10, 2021.
COVID-19 Clinical Trials: An Overview
Researchers and clinicians all over the world have reacted to the COVID-19 pandemic and the ensuing public health crisis with a colossal worldwide effort to discover a treatment. With increasing number of global cases and fatalities, the world waits for more positive results from these ongoing trials. Several existing antivirals, traditional and alternative medicines, investigative or repurposed compounds, support devices as well as procedures, supplements are being explored in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
The pandemic has changed the way trials are being conducted, with several radical changes in terms of recruitment, obtaining consent remotely, telemedical monitoring and implementation of more innovative trial designs. There is a need to make these positive changes instigated by the pandemic sustainable .
The World Health Organization’s International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) ensures that “a complete view of research is accessible to all those involved in health care decision making”. Information in the WHO ICTRP comprises of structured data from several major clinical trial databases from countries or regions of the world, including but not limited to the ClinicalTrials.gov , Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR) , The Clinical Trials Registry- India (CTRI) , Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials , European Union Clinical Trials Register  and the ISRCTN register .
As of May 07, 2021, there are 9485 trials registered in the WHO ICRTRP database for COVID-19, with 5481 Interventional trials and rest comprising majorly of Observational studies (3485), Diagnosis tests (49), and others (Expanded Access, Basic Science, Epidemiological research etc.) .
Of note, is the SOLIDARITY trial . Solidarity is an international clinical trial to help find an effective treatment for COVID-19, launched by the World Health Organization and partners. It is one of the largest international randomized trials for COVID-19 treatments, enrolling almost 12 000 patients in 500 hospital sites in over 30 countries. The Solidarity Trial is evaluating the effect of drugs on 3 important outcomes in COVID-19 patients: mortality, need for assisted ventilation and duration of hospital stay. compares treatment options against standard of care to assess their relative effectiveness against COVID-19. By enrolling patients in multiple countries, the Solidarity Trial aims to evaluate whether any of the drugs improve survival or reduce the need for ventilation or duration of hospital stay. Other drugs may be added based on emerging evidence. The Solidarity Trial published interim results on 15 October 2020. It found that all 4 treatments evaluated (remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon) had little or no effect on overall mortality, initiation of ventilation and duration of hospital stay in hospitalized patients. Previously, on 4 July 2020, WHO had accepted the recommendation from the Solidarity Trial’s International Steering Committee to discontinue the trial’s hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir arms.
Another such trial, The Randomised Evaluation of COVid-19 thERapY (RECOVERY) trial was officially launched on 23 March 2020. The trial led to the first breakthrough in the COVID-19 response within only three months – the finding that the cheap steroid dexamethasone saves the lives of hospitalized patients. Within its first year, RECOVERY also identified another beneficial treatment, the anti-inflammatory drug tocilizumab, besides ruling out four candidate therapies. In one year, it has recruited almost 40,000 patients and investigated 10 treatments. The RECOVERY Trial is currently testing some of the other suggested treatments: Regeneron’s antibody cocktail, Baricitinib, and Dimethyl fumarate (an immunomodulatory drug used in psoriasis and multiple sclerosis). The RECOVERY Trial is registered at ISRCTN50189673; EU Clinical Trials Register: EudraCT 2020-001113-21; and Clinical Trials.gov: NCT04381936. This trial is supported by a grant to the University of Oxford from UK Research and Innovation/National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) and by core funding provided by NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Wellcome, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Department for International Development, Health Data Research UK, the Medical Research Council Population Health Research Unit, and NIHR Clinical Trials Unit Support Funding .
The US FDA has created a special emergency program for possible coronavirus therapies, the Coronavirus Treatment Acceleration Program (CTAP). As per the program guidelines, it aims to use every available method to move new treatments to patients as quickly as possible, while at the same time finding out whether they are helpful or harmful . The CTAP Dashboard provides users with a snapshot of development of potential COVID-19 therapeutics. As of May 07, 2021, the CTAP dashboard lists 600+ available therapies with 440+ clinical trials reviewed, with 10 of the available therapies approved for Emergency Use. Only one among the therapies have been FDA approved so far (Figure 1).
Figure 1: Treatments reviewed by CTAP – Numbers correspond to number of safe to proceed INDs. Excludes INDs related to vaccines (Source: CTAP dashboard ). There were 100+ early stage trials and 330+ late stage (Phase 2-4) trials from U. S. included in the analysis.
As per FDA classification, the categories in this bar chart span several categories –
- Antiviral drugs keep viruses from multiplying and are used to treat many viral infections (such as HIV, Herpes, Hepatitis C, and influenza).
- Immunomodulators are aimed at tamping down the body’s own immune reaction to the virus, in cases where the body’s reaction basically goes overboard and starts attacking the patient’s own organs.
- Neutralizing antibody therapies may help individuals fight the virus and include manufactured antibodies, animal-sourced antibody therapies, and blood-derived products such as convalescent plasma and hyperimmune globulin, which contain antibodies taken from people who have previously had COVID-19.
- Cell therapy products include cellular immunotherapies and other types of both autologous and allogeneic cells, such as stem cells, and related products.
- Gene therapy products seek to modify or manipulate the expression of a gene or to alter the biological properties of living cells for therapeutic use.
The Accelerating COVID-19 Therapeutic Interventions and Vaccines (ACTIV) partnership  was announced on April 17, 2020 by National Institutes of Health (NIH), with coordination by the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) involving a collaboration among government and industry partners, including FDA, to prioritize vaccine and therapeutic candidates, streamline clinical trials, and rapidly expand the clinical research resources focused on developing therapies . ACTIV continues to grow and now involves several academic and industry partners (20 biopharmaceutical companies), and up to 8 different government agencies. ACTIV also works closely with other COVID-19 efforts, including FDA and BARDA’s Medical Countermeasures Task Force, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Wellcome Trust, the European Commission, the UK government, and the World Health Organization.
The ACTIV master protocols include ACTIV-1 (Immune Modulators including infliximab), ACTIV-2 (Outpatient Monoclonal Antibodies and Other Therapies including Lilly’s LY-CoV555, Astrazeneca’s AZD7442, Synarigen’s SNG001), ACTIV-3 (Inpatient Monoclonal Antibodies and Other Therapies including Vir Biotechnology’s VIR-7831), ACTIV-4 (Antithrombotics including Aspirin), ACTIV-5 (Big Effect Trial including Humanigen’ Lenzilumab), ACTIV-6 (Outpatient Repurposed Drugs), and ACTIV-Associated (includes Convalescent Plasma, Hyperimmune Intravenous Immunoglobulin, remdesivir, baricitinib, Rebif and other combinations) . Several tracker projects [15, 16, 17] classify trials based on strategies tested against COVID-19.
Analysis of major categories highlights the top treatments being investigated world-wide as shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2: A comparison of treatments as a measure of trials they are part of, as on 10 November 2020. Data was obtained from WHO ICTRP  and Trials Tracker Projects [15, 16, 17].
Ever since the first clinical trial was registered early in 2020, trial registrations have seen an unprecedented pace. The number of registrations daily since early January 2020 is shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3: The pandemic pace of clinical trial registrations on leading platforms, as per data obtained from WHO ICTRP  on May 07, 2021. Over 9400 trials were available for analysis.
For a routinely updated list of all clinical trials with details and links to the registry page, please visit the adjacent tab “List of Clinical Trials”.
- Gaba, P., Bhatt, D.L. The COVID-19 pandemic: a catalyst to improve clinical trials. Nat Rev Cardiol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41569-020-00439-7
- ClinicalTrials.gov Registry. https://clinicaltrials.gov/
- Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR). http://www.chictr.org.cn/abouten.aspx
- The Clinical Trials Registry- India (CTRI). http://ctri.nic.in/Clinicaltrials/login.php
- Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials. https://www.irct.ir/
- European Union Clinical Trials Register. https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/search
- ISRCTN register. https://www.isrctn.com/
- World Health Organization’s International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP). https://www.who.int/ictrp/en/
- “Solidarity” clinical trial for COVID-19 treatments. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/global-research-on-novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov/solidarity-clinical-trial-for-covid-19-treatments
- The RECOVERY Trial. https://www.recoverytrial.net/
- Coronavirus Treatment Acceleration Program (CTAP) | FDA. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/coronavirus-covid-19-drugs/coronavirus-treatment-acceleration-program-ctap
- ACCELERATING COVID-19 THERAPEUTIC INTERVENTIONS AND VACCINES (ACTIV). https://www.nih.gov/research-training/medical-research-initiatives/activ
- NIH to launch public-private partnership to speed COVID-19 vaccine and treatment options. https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/nih-launch-public-private-partnership-speed-covid-19-vaccine-treatment-options
- The ACTIV trials. https://www.nih.gov/research-training/medical-research-initiatives/activ/covid-19-therapeutics-prioritized-testing-clinical-trials
- The Cochrane COVID-19 database. https://covid-19.cochrane.org/
- The TrialsTracker project dashboard. http://covid19.trialstracker.net/
- Global Coronavirus COVID-19 Clinical Trial Tracker. https://covidtrialstracker.org/
Updated: May 07, 2021. Prepared by: Sudheer Krishna
COVID-19 Global Funding Response
The world is facing an unprecedented challenge with communities and economies everywhere affected by the growing COVID-19 pandemic. IMF estimates suggest that, for each month the pandemic persists, $500 billion is lost from the global economy. The world is coming together to combat the COVID-19 pandemic bringing together governments, organizations and individuals from across industries and sectors to help respond to this global outbreak. The outpour of global solidarity and support sparked by this shared challenge has been phenomenal.
An analysis of data available on the Devex funding database reveals over $20.8 trillion committed to the COVID-19 response to date. Since the beginning of 2020, governments, bilateral and multilateral donors, development banks, philanthropic organizations, and the private sector have all played a role in contributing money, equipment, expertise, and more. As of May 02, 2021, investments totaling $249.8 billion have been made through 1,351 program announcements and 1,092 grants have supported $9.3 billion worth of investment. As for business opportunities, 3,087 tenders have seen $12.2 billion invested through program delivery and service partners, while 1,919 contracts have delivered $2.8 billion on the ground.
The WHO Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan outlines a funding need of at least US$675 million for critical response efforts in countries most in need of help through April 2020. People and organizations who want to help fight the pandemic and support WHO and partners can now donate through the COVID-Solidarity Response Fund for WHO at www.COVID19ResponseFund.org. Over US$250 million has already been raised as of 29 April, 2021 from more than 669,548 individuals, companies and philanthropies.
The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) is a global alliance financing and coordinating the development of vaccines against emerging infectious diseases. CEPI has a $3.5 billion plan of action to substantially reduce global epidemic and pandemic risk. CEPI has already played a central role in the global response to the pandemic, creating the world’s largest portfolio of COVID-19 vaccines and helping to make 2 billion doses accessible to 190 countries through COVAX in 2021. CEPI will by the end of March 2021 also launch a Call for Proposals to provide US $200m funding for an ‘all-in-one’ vaccine that could protect against a broad range of coronaviruses, including SARS, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. CEPI has received support from founding member Norway (US$210 million), UK government (US$270 million), Government of Belgium (US$5.5 million), Government of Canada (US$28.2 million), Greece (US$1.6 million) and German Government’s Federal Ministry (US$157 million).
CEPI, alongside Gavi and the World Health Organisation, launched COVAX – the vaccines pillar of the ACT Accelerator – with the aim of ending the acute phase of the pandemic by the end of 2021. The Access to COVID-19 Tools ACT-Accelerator is a new, ground-breaking global collaboration to accelerate the development, production, and equitable access to COVID-19 tests, treatments, and vaccines. It was set up in response to a call from G20 leaders in March and launched by the WHO, European Commission, France and The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation in April 2020. COVAX is the solution that will deliver fair, equitable access to vaccines for every country that participates. Together the aim is to produce 2 billion doses of vaccine and distribute them globally and fairly in 2021. COVAX, the vaccines pillar of the Access to COVID-19 Tools (ACT) Accelerator is co-led by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance Gavi) and the World Health Organization (WHO) – working in partnership with developed and developing country vaccine manufacturers, UNICEF, the World Bank, and others. It is the only global initiative that is working with governments and manufacturers to ensure COVID-19 vaccines are available worldwide to both higher-income and lower-income countries.
To date, CEPI has secured financial support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Wellcome Trust, the European Commission, and the governments of Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Ethiopia, Germany, Japan, Mexico, Norway and the United Kingdom. In response to call the Governments of Austria, Australia, Belgium, Canada, European Commission, Finland, France, Greece, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Norway, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Serbia, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom, alongside private sector companies and donations through the UN Foundation COVID-19 Solidarity Response Fund, have pledged $1.4 billion in financial contributions.
Through the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Microsoft founder and philanthropist plan to help fund factories for promising vaccines, even before seeing conclusive data. The foundation has committed more than $350 million to support the global response to COVID-19. This includes $100 million to Gavi’s new COVID-19 Vaccine Advance Market Commitment, to support its future efforts to deliver COVID-19 vaccines to lower-income countries. In addition to the more than $350 million committed, the foundation will also leverage a portion of its Strategic Investment Fund, which addresses market failures and helps make it attractive for private enterprise to develop affordable and accessible health products. For example, the foundation is collaborating with Gavi and the Serum Institute of India to accelerate the manufacture and delivery of up to 100 million doses of COVID-19 vaccines for low- and middle-income countries. $150 million came from the Strategic Investment Fund. The Gates Foundation, along with Wellcome and Mastercard, are the founding funders of the COVID-19 Therapeutics Accelerator. The Accelerator is intended to play a catalytic role by accelerating and evaluating new and repurposed drugs to respond to COVID-19 in the immediate term, and other viruses in the longer-term – up to $50 million of the commitment will go towards supporting the COVID-19 Therapeutics Accelerator.
Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) part of the HHS Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, was established to aid in securing our nation from chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) threats, as well as from pandemic influenza (PI) and emerging infectious diseases (EID). BARDA supports the transition of medical countermeasures such as vaccines, drugs, and diagnostics from research through advanced development towards consideration for approval by the FDA and inclusion into the Strategic National Stockpile. BARDA has updated its Broad Agency Announcements (BAAs) to focus exclusively on addressing the COVID-19 threat. BARDA’s annual budget of $512 Million has been supplemented by an additional $3.5 billion through the recently passed Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act. The additional funding is allocated for necessary expenses of manufacturing, production, and purchase of various supplies and services. AstraZeneca recently received $1B in BARDA funding to advance vaccine. Another leading candidate, Moderna received $483 million BARDA award for vaccine development, while it awarded $450 million to Janssen Pharmaceuticals, a division of Johnson & Johnson, to develop a vaccine.
On 4 May 2020, the EU and its partners hosted an international pledging conference which has now raised €9.8 billion in pledges from donors worldwide to kick-start the global cooperation. This includes a pledge of €1.4 billion from the Commission of which €1 billion comes from Horizon 2020. The EU plays a central role is supporting and coordinating research on infectious diseases, with €4.1 billion invested from 2007 to 2019 through the 7th Framework Programme and Horizon 2020, which foresees further commitments in 2020 in addition to the €1 billion pledge for coronavirus research. This has included initiatives to coordinate European efforts to address antimicrobial resistance, as well as preparedness and emergency response to outbreaks (Ebola, Zika). From the Horizon 2020, €818 million has already been mobilised, and a further €205 million has been pledged. The funds already mobilized includes €100 million contribution to Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) (€50 million were mobilised + €50 million in the final approval process).
The Board of Directors of the European Investment Bank (EIB) has agreed on the structure and business approach of the Pan-European Guarantee Fund (EGF) to tackle the economic consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. The Fund was endorsed by the European Council as part of the overall EU COVID-19 response package. It will enable the EIB Group to scale up its support for mostly small and medium-sized European companies, providing up to €200 billion of additional financing.
The Global Fund, the largest multilateral funder of health systems worldwide, is providing immediate funding of up to US$1 billion to help countries fight COVID-19, mitigate the impacts on lifesaving HIV, TB and malaria programs, and prevent fragile health systems from being overwhelmed. Under the World Health Organization’s leadership, the Global Fund is using its experience working with partners and governments in more than 100 countries to coordinate our response on a massive global scale.
Multiple National Institutes of Health (NIH) Institutes have issued a Notice of Special Interest (NOSI) to provide funding for research topics related to COVID-19. National Institute on Aging (NIA), National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), The National Heart, Lung, Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), and National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA) are providing opportunities under the NIH.
Updated: May 07, 2021.
|1||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NCI, NCCIH, NHGRI, NIAID, NICHD, NIDDK, NIEHS, NIGMS, NIMHD, NIBIB,NCATS||Emergency Competitive Revision to Existing NIH Awards (Emergency Supplement – Clinical Trial Optional)||Not limited||See Emergency Notice of Special Interest by IC|
|2||Comcast Innovation Fund||Innovation Fund Grants Area of Interest 2021: COVID-19 Effects on the Internet||$150,000||Rolling basis as long as funding is available|
|3||Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI)||Expression of Interest: Vaccine Drug Products in alternative primary packaging and delivery devices||Not specified||Rolling basis|
|4||COVID-19 Early Treatment Fund (CETF)||Funding for Outpatient Trials||Up to $1M||Currently accepting applications|
|5||Cisco||Pandemic/COVID-19 Science, Technology and Social Impact||Unspecified||Unspecified|
|6||Autism Speaks||COVID-19 Call for Resources||N/A||Unspecified|
|7||Biogen Foundation (typically funds Boston, MA & Research Triangle,NC)||COVID-19 Response||Unspecified (up to $10M in total funding)||Unspecified (accepting applications)|
|8||Draper Richards Kaplan Foundation||EWDRK Covid-19 Urgent Response Initiative (CURI)||$50,000-$100,000 (CURI invests 25% maximum of total)||Unspecified|
|9||Merck KGaA (Germany)||Research Grant for Pandemic Preparedness||1,500,000 Euros||Applications accepted on a rolling basis|
|10||Mozilla||COVID-19 Solutions Fund||$50,000||Applications accepted on a rolling basis|
|11||Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI)||PCORI Funding Opportunity for COVID-19-Related Enhancements to Existing PCORI-Funded Engagement Awards||$150,000||Applications accepted on a rolling basis|
|12||Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI)||PCORI Funding Opportunity for COVID-19-Related Enhancements to Existing PCORI-Funded Research Projects||$500,000||Applications accepted on a rolling basis|
|13||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NIAID||Notice of Special Interest (NOSI) regarding the Availability of Emergency Competitive Revisions for Select Research Activities related to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)||Budgets should reflect the actual needs||Applications accepted until 7/2/2021|
|14||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NIAID||Limited Competition Emergency Awards: Shared Personal Protective Equipment Resources for COVID-19 Related Vaccine and Treatment Clinical Trials and Clinical Studies (S10 Clinical Trial Not Allowed)||Budgets should reflect actual needs (direct costs only)||Applications accepted until 7/8/2021|
|15||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NIA, NIAID, NIDDK, NIDA, NIMH, NIEHS, NICHD, NIAAA, NIBIB, NHGRI, NIMHD, NCATS, NIDCH, NCI||Urgent Competitive Revision to Existing NIH Grants and Cooperative Agreements (Urgent Supplement – Clinical Trial Optional)||Must reflect your needs||Varies by awarding IC|
|16||Department of Energy (DOE)||Invitation for COVID-19 Scientific questions||DOE Resources||3/18/2020 (reviews start 3/18 but accepted on a rolling basis)|
|17||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NIBIB Point-of-Care Technology Research Network (POCTRN)||Fast-Track Program for COVID-19 Test Development and Distribution)||Phase 0: $25,000||Rolling (selection process began 4/29/2020)|
|18||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NIEHS||Notice of Special Interest (NOSI): NIEHS Support for Understanding the Impact of Environmental Exposures on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)||Must reflect your needs||5/1/2020, 6/1/2020 (other deadlines within)|
|19||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NIAID, NIA||Investigator Initiated Extended Clinical Trial (R01 Clinical Trial Required)||Not limited||5/13/2020; 9/13/2020; and others|
|20||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NIAAA||Notice of Special Interest: Availability of Administrative Supplements and Competitive Revision Supplements on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) within the Mission of NIAAA||$200,000 (direct costs)||5/15/2020 (applications accepted until 4/15/2021)|
|21||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NCATS||Notice of Special Interest (NOSI) regarding the Availability of Emergency Competitive Revisions to Existing NIH Grants and Cooperative Agreements for Tissue Chips Research on the 2019 Novel Coronavirus||Limited to amount of current parent||5/15/2020 (applications accepted until 1/25/2022)|
|22||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NCATS||Notice of Special Interest (NOSI) regarding the Availability of Administrative Supplements for Tissue Chips Research on the 2019 Novel Coronavirus||Limited to no more than 25% total costs of the amount of the current parent award||5/15/2020 (applications accepted until 1/25/2022)|
|23||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NCATS||Notice of Special Interest (NOSI): Repurposing Existing Therapeutics to Address the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)||Check RFA(s) within||6/5/2020 (other later deadlines within)|
|24||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NIA||NIA Multi-site COVID-19 Related Clinical Trial Implementation Grant on Aging-Related Topics in at-risk Older Adult Populations (R01 Clinical Trial Required)||Must reflect your needs||7/1/2020; 8/3/2020; and others|
|25||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | OD, NHLBI, NHGRI, NIA, NIAID, NIAMS, NICHD, NIDCD, NIDCR, NIDDK, NIEHS, NINDS, NIMHD, NCCIH, NCATS, ORIP, NCI||Notice of Special Interest (NOSI) regarding the Availability of Urgent Competitive Revisions and Administrative Supplements for Research on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Individuals with Down Syndrome for the INCLUDE Project||$1,000,000 (direct costs)||7/13/2020; 11/12/2020; other deadlines within|
|26||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NIAID||Notice of Special Interest (NOSI): Availability of Emergency Awards for Limited Clinical Trials to Evaluate Therapeutic and Vaccine Candidates Against SARS-CoV-2||-||9/14/2020; 10/14/2020; 11/14/2020 (other deadlines within)|
|27||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NICHD||Notice of Special Interest: Emerging Viral Infections and their Impact on the Male and Female Reproductive Tract||Must reflect your needs||10/5/2020 (subsequent receipt dates through 7/16/2023)|
|28||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NIDCD||Notice of Special Interest (NOSI): NIDCD is Interested in Supporting Research on the Impact of COVID-19 on Mission Specific Sensory and Communication Disorders||Varies (see RFAs within)||10/5/2020 (subsequent receipt dates through 9/8/2022)|
|29||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NIMHD, NIA, NIDA, NCI||Long-Term Effects of Disasters on Health Care Systems Serving Health Disparity Populations (R01- Clinical Trial Optional)||Not limited||10/5/2020 (and standard R01 deadlines)|
|30||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NIMHD, NIAMS, NIDA, NIMH, NLM, NCI||Notice of Special Interest (NOSI): Simulation Modeling and Systems Science to Address Health Disparities||Must reflect your needs||10/5/2020 (subsequent receipt dates through 5/8/2023)|
|31||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NHLBI||Notice of Special Interest (NOSI): The Influence of Host Resilience on Heterogeneity of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome/Acute Lung Injury (ARDS/ALI)||Must reflect your needs||10/5/2020 (subsequent receipt dates through 7/5/2024)|
|32||Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA)||Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) Broad Agency Announcement (BAA)||Negotiated after white paper stage||10/31/2020 (white paper & full application)|
|33||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NIMHD, NIAAA, NIDA||Health Services Research on Minority Health and Health Disparities (R01- Clinical Trial Optional)||Must reflect your needs||11/27/2020 (subsequent receipt dates within RFA)|
|34||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NIDA||Notice of Special Interest (NOSI): Effects of smoking and vaping on the risk and outcome of COVID-19 infection||Varies (see RFAs within)||1/4/2021 (applications accepted through 9/8/2024)|
|35||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NIMH||Notice of Special Interest: Administrative Supplements for COVID-19 Impacted NIMH Research||Varies||1/5/2021 (applications accepted through 6/1/2023)|
|36||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NIAID||Emergency Awards: Notice of Special Interest (NOSI) on Pan-Coronavirus Vaccine Development Program Projects||$500,000 (max annual direct costs without prior approval)||1/11/2021 and 6/11/2021|
|37||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NIAMS||Notice of Special Interest: Promoting Research on COVID-19 and Rheumatic, Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases||Varies (see RFAs within)||2/5/2021 (subsequent receipt dates through 11/18/2021)|
|38||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NICHD||Notice of Special Interest (NOSI) – Research on Rehabilitation Needs Associated with the COVID-19 Pandemic||Must reflect your needs||2/5/2021 (subsequent receipt dates through 5/8/2023)|
|39||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NIA||Notice of Special Interest (NOSI): Aging-Relevant Behavioral and Social Research on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)||Varies (see RFAs within)||3/4/2021 (applications accepted through 5/8/2023)|
|40||Russell Sage Foundation||Funding Priority: Research on the COVID-19 Pandemic and the Resulting Recession in the US||Varies||5/4/2021|
|41||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NINDS||Notice of Special Interest: Impact of COVID-19 on Dementia Risk, Progression and Outcomes in ADRD Populations||Maximum equal to direct costs of current year of parent award (up to $666,000)||5/5/2021|
|42||Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI)||Complementary clinical trials: Expanding access to COVID-19 vaccines and rapid response to clinical development gaps||$140,000,000||5/28/2021|
|43||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NIDCR||Notice of Special Interest (NOSI): NIDCR Support for Research on the Physiological Involvement of Oral Cavity in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)||Varies (see RFAs within)||6/5/2021 (subsequent receipt dates through 5/8/2023)|
|44||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NIA, NEI, NIAAA, NIDA, NIMH, NIMHD (OBSSR, ORWH)||Emergency Award: Social, Behavioral, and Economic Research on COVID-19 Consortium (U01 Clinical Trial Not Allowed)||$2,500,000 (direct costs)||6/9/2021 and 11/8/2021|
|45||Robert Wood Johnson Foundation||Research in Transforming Health and Health Care Systems||$350,000||6/28/2021|
|46||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | OD, NEI, NHLBI, NHGRI, NIA, NIAAA, NIAID, NIAMS, NIBIB, NICHD, NIDCD, NIDCR, NIDDK, NIDA, NIEHS, NIGMS, NIMH, NINDS, NINR, NIMHD, NLM, NCCIH, NCATS, NCI, THRO||Emergency Award: RADx-UP - Social, Ethical, and Behavioral Implications (SEBI) Research on Disparities in COVID-19 Testing among Underserved and Vulnerable Populations (U01 Clinical Trials Optional)||$800,000 (direct costs)||7/7/2021|
|47||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | OD, NEI, NHLBI, NHGRI, NIA, NIAAA, NIAID, NIAMS, NIBIB, NICHD, NIDCD, NIDCR, NIDDK, NIDA, NIEHS, NIGMS, NIMH, NINDS, NINR, NIMHD, NLM, NCCIH, NCATS, NCI, THRO||Emergency Awards: Community-engaged COVID-19 Testing Interventions among Underserved and Vulnerable Populations – RADx-UP Phase II (U01 Clinical Trial Optional)||$1,500,000 (direct costs)||7/7/2021|
|48||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NIAAA||SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 and Consequences of Alcohol Use (R01 Clinical Trial Not Allowed)||$750,000 (direct costs)||8/17/2021|
|49||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NIAAA||SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 and Consequences of Alcohol Use (R03 Clinical Trial Not Allowed)||$100,000 (direct costs)||8/17/2021|
|50||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NIAAA||SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 and Consequences of Alcohol Use (R21 Clinical Trial Not Allowed||$275,000 (direct costs)||8/17/2021|
|51||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NIAAA||Notice of Intent to Publish a Funding Opportunity Announcement for SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 and Consequences of Alcohol Use (R01 Clinical Trials Not Allowed)||$250,000 (direct costs)||9/1/2021|
|52||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NIAAA||Notice of Intent to Publish a Funding Opportunity Announcement for SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 and Consequences of Alcohol Use (R03 Clinical Trials Not Allowed)||$50,000 (direct costs)||9/1/2021|
|53||National Institutes of Health (NIH) | NIAAA||Notice of Intent to Publish a Funding Opportunity Announcement for SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 and Consequences of Alcohol Use (R21 Clinical Trials Not Allowed)||$150,000 (direct costs)||9/1/2021|
|54||National Science Foundation (NSF)||RAPID: Dear Colleague Letter on the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)||$200,000||Check with program officers|
|55||Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE)||Fast Track Call for Requests for Computing Resources||Computing resources offered by PRACE||Open until further notice|
|56||US National Science Foundation (NSF)||Rapid Response Research (RAPID) Coronavirus(COVID-19)||Research grant||Not specified, continuous submissions|
|57||Spanish Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII)||SOLICITUD URGENTE DE EXPRESIONES DE INTERÉS PARA LA FINANCIACIÓN EXTRAORDINARIA DE PROYECTOS DE INVESTIGACIÓN SOBRE EL SARS-COV-2 Y LA ENFERMEDAD COVID-19||Research grant||Not specified, continuous submissions|
|58||Wellcome, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Mastercard||The COVID-19 Therapeutics Accelerator||Research grant||Not specified|
|59||Novartis||Novartis COVID-19 Response Fund||Financial grants||Not specified|
|60||Amazon Web Services||The AWS Diagnostic Development Initiative (DDI)||Financial grants||Not specified|
|61||Science Foundation Ireland, Enterprise Ireland, IDA Ireland||COVID-19 Rapid Response||R&D support||Not specified|
|62||Consejería de Salud, Junta de Andalucía||Programa de Investigación Clínica en COVID-19 de Andalucía||Research Grants||None - open until funds are exhausted|
|63||Arts and Humanities Research Council, UK / UKRI||Research and innovation ideas to address Covid-19||Research grants||None - open until funds are exhausted|
|64||UK Research and Innovation (UKRI)||Get funding for ideas that address COVID-19||Research and Innovation grants covering 80% of full economic cost||None - apply at any time|
|65||Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE)||COVID-19 HPC Consortium||Access to computing capabilities||None - apply at any time|
|66||European Open Science Cloud (EOSC)||COVID-19 Fast Track Funding||Co-creation grants for deployment of open science methods and resources||None - apply at any time|
|67||National Research Council Canada||NRC COVID-19 community support||Various types of support.||No deadline|
|68||The Malta Council for Science and Technology||COVID-19 R&D Fund||R&D support||No deadline specified - projects must start before 31 December 2020.|
|69||Arts and Humanities Research Council, UK / UKRI||Modern Slavery and Human Rights Policy and Evidence Centre: the impact of COVID-19 on modern slavery||Research grants||Not specified, continuous submissions|
|70||Merck||RESEARCH GRANT FOR PANDEMIC PREPAREDNESS||Research grants||Not specified, continuous submissions|
|71||British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC), UK||COVID-19 open funding call||Research grants||Not specified, continuous submissions|
|72||The German Marshall Fund of the United States||Coronavirus Fast Response Fund||Grants up to 25'000 USD||Not specified, continuous submissions|
|73||Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI), USA||COVID-19-Related Enhancements to Existing PCORI-Funded Dissemination and Implementation Awards||Enhancements for active grants, up to 500,000 USD.||No deadline|
|74||National Science Foundation (NSF), US||SBIR/STTR Phase I Proposals Addressing COVID-19||Seed funding||No deadline|
|75||Central European Research Infrastructure Consortium (CERIC)||COVID-19 Fast Track Access||Access to instruments: 600 & 800 MHz NMR, synchrotron beamlines, infrared source for spectroscopy and imaging, etc.||No deadline|
|76||Central Laser Facility, Science and Technology Facilities Council||Rapid Access Call for Octopus Facility Proposals: SARS-CoV-2||Access to imaging facility||No deadline|
|77||BioData||Labguru Pro-bono COVID-19 Programme||Access to electronic laboratory notebook and cloud resources.||No deadline|
|78||FAPERJ and the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil||R$ 30 milhões para pesquisa sobre o Covid-19||Research and innovation grants.||Not specified, continuous submissions|
|79||Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) / Swiss Light Source (SLS) / SwissFEL||Priority access call for work on combating COVID-19||Access to beamtime||Continuous submissions, open for 6 months from 9 March 2020|
|80||US National Institutes of Health (NIH) - National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)||Notice of Special Interest (NOSI) regarding the Availability of Administrative Supplements and Urgent Competitive Revisions for Research on the 2019 Novel Coronavirus||Administrative supplement and competitive revision to active NIH grant||31 March 2021 (intermediate step by 25 June 2020)|
|81||US National Institutes of Health (NIH)||Emergency Awards: Rapid Investigation of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)||R21: Exploratory/Developmental Research Grant (clinical trials not allowed)||29-Apr-21|
|82||US National Institutes of Health (NIH)||Emergency Awards: Rapid Investigation of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)||R01: Research Project Grant||29-Apr-21|
|83||Department of Biotechnology (DBT), India & Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), Germany||Funding Opportunities for Indo-German Fundamental Research Projects in the Life Sciences||Collaborative research grants||28-Feb-21|
Updated: 08 May, 2021.